Most ancient Greek proper names either names of gods, humans or animals as well as toponyms and hydronyms cannot be explained by Greek language, but by other Indo-European language which is the Pelasgian language being in the same time the substrate language of Greek. Robert Beekes, the author of the most recent Greek Etymological Dictionary shows that almost half of ancient Greek words are loanwords from the substrate language, but he does not say what language was it, although is obvious that it is a centum Indo-European language, quite different form Greek. I mention that the author of these lines identified hundreds of words in Greek which have close cognates in modern Romanian which is the real descendent of Pelasgian language. Briefly, the Greek substrate language was no other than Pelasgian, an older form of Illyro-Thraco-Dacian. In this article, the author shows that the personal name Achilles along with a few other names cannot be explained form Greek perspective, but from a Pelasgian one.
Review of the Book “Cultural Hybridization in the Contemporary Novel” by Diana-Eugenia Panait-Ioncică
The book Cultural Hybridization in the Contemporary Novel is concerned with the issue of cultural hybridization, deemed by the author to be a key concept for defining the world in which we live. The author thinks cultural hybridization cannot be confined to the narrow approach taken by postcolonialism; she extends its significance and sees it as one of the pivotal concepts in contemporary English language literature. The idea at the core of the book is that of plural cultural identities, which combine a multitude of cultural elements. The authors analyzed in the book are Michael Ondaatje, Kazuo Ishiguro and Salman Rushdie. The identities that are shaped by the three authors’ relations to their culture of origin are hybrid identities, which cannot be termed as purely Oriental or Occidental, but are to be found between cultures and nationalities, being mixtures of the above.
The centum/satem distinction refers to the nature of the first two dialects that appeared in Proto-Indo-European, namely the different evolution of Proto-Indo-European palatal velars *k , *g and *g'h. The western dialect was named centum and the Eastern one satem. Following this distinction, we can demonstrate that the Traco-Dacian language is a centum, not a satem language as it was believed since 19th century to the present. The Romanian lexical elements of Thraco-Dacian origin, discussed in this article have centum, not satem features which proves that this language was a centum language and even related to Latin and other Italic languages. Furthermore, we may easily distinguish the genuine Slavic lonawords into Romanian and vice-versa. Until now the Romanian linguists were completely unaware of these details.
This is the third and the last part of nn etymological dictionary of the Thraco-Dacian language. spoken in Central Europe including the Balkan region which is, in fact, the ancestor of Romanian language. This small etymological dictionary includes around 1000 words, group in about 340 semantic groups. One will find out that this language has a lot in common with Romanian language, Latin and Italic languages as well. The words analyzed here are from the Sinaia tablets discovered at Sinaia, Romania. In this part one will find the etymology of the adjectives and the closed classes parts of speech (adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections).
The following is the second part of The Language of the Inscriptions of the Sinaia Tablets (a relatively small etymological dictionary of Dacian language), namely the nouns (see Verbs in the previous issue of this Journal) identified on the Sinaia tablets discovered near the town of Sinaia, Romania. The language is closely related to Romanian, being in the same time the real mother language of Romanian. There were several attempts to decipher the texts of the tablets. I used here the one made by Eugen Nicolaescu.
There have been and there is still much controversy about the origin of Romanian language and people originating either from bad faith or ignorance. Basically, it comes down to two hypotheses: the Latin or the Dacian one, both well known to all of us. The real discovery of Sinaia tablets took place in the second half of the nineteenth century, but the details remain a mystery. In the 90s of last century when Dan Romalo published the first book on the inscriptions of the remaining 134 lead tablets out of hundreds that were discovered more than a century before. Meanwhile, a few more authors tried to decipher these inscriptions. In 2014, Eugen Nicolaescu a professional decrypter published his Vorbele din Plumb (The Words from Lead) making a much better interpretation of the data. In what follows, I make the etymological analysis of 336 Thraco-Dacian words. From what we could see, the language is actually an archaic form of Romanian, with many links to Latin and other Italic languages (including Etruscan) or other Indo-European languages.
The Introduction investigates the origin of Romanian language from a new perspective. Due to the fact that most (86%) of the Romanian lexicon cannot be explained through Latin and it has no cognates in other Romance language, a new method of investigation was developed. From the other 14%, 2/3 belong to a common Indo-European heritage. Thus the Introduction (and the dictionary) shows that most of the Romanian lexicon originates from Thraco-Dacian, a language widely spoken in Balkan region and central and eastern Europe in ancient times. It compares the Romanian lexicon with other Indo-European languages and presents into details the phonological evolution of sounds from Proto-Indo-European to Romanian. The method works very well and solves the etymology of thousands of Romanian words left with unknown, uncertain or wrongly attributed etymology as discussed in the new Etymological Dictionary of Romanian. As a result one may say that Romanian is not a real Romance language as it was believed, but the daughter language of Thraco-Dacian with some Latin, Slavic or other lexical borrowings. The paper also reveals that Thraco-Dacian (and Illyrian) were closely related to Celtic and Italic languages and by analyzing the Romanian lexicon of Thraco-Dacian origin, it shows also that this language was a centum language, contrary to the general belief that it was a satem lanaguage. A beginnig of Romanization may have taken place, but not a Romanization proper. This hypothesis is supported by both linguistic and historical facts investigated in this paper.
The goal of this journal is to address a number of little known aspects regarding the Romanian spirituality, language and culture. The linguistics articles will be presented from a new perspective, since the author along these lines proved that Romanian is not a real Romance language. Also archaeology, genetics and cultural anthropology will play a major role. The journal was created to inform the Romanians, as well as the foreign researchers (linguists, archaeologists and anthropologists) interested to learn more about Romanian language and culture. The journal is bi-lingual with articles in Romanian and English. The articles in English are mostly [...]