Etymological Dictionary of the Romanian Language

 A

 

 a¹ (variant ah) (interj.) – exclamation of pain, of wonder, etc.

According to Cioranescu (2), it is of imitative origin.

Although it may be considered of imitative origin, it appears in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit ā ‘exclamation of wonder’, Greek ά‘exclamation of indignation, pain’, Latin āāh ‘exclamation of pain, indignation, displeasure’, Gothic ō ‘exclamation of pain”, Lithuanian á ‘exclamation of pain’, all from Proto-Indo-European [hence PIE] *ā ‘exclamation of wonder’ (IEW, 1).

 

a² (Aromanian ato, at) (prep.) – to, at, next to.

Today it has a restricted use being replaced by la ‘id’ (see la).

Latin ad (Puşcariu, 1; Candrea-Densusianu, 1; REW, 136; Cioranescu, 1).

In Old Romanian, it was used in all situations where today it is used la: “şezu a dereapta lui Dumnezeu” (He sat on the right side of God) (Coresi; cf. Cioranescu), frequently found at the chroniclers, such as Dosoftei and other authors of 16th-17th centuries. Although today it is not used as much as several centuries ago, it is found in syntactical structures such as “miroase a flori’ (it smells like flowers) or a-casă ((at) home).

The forms of the so-called genitival article are compound forms of preposition a and the definite article ( -a, -l, -i, -le). This can be seen in noun phrases with a numeral such as “mamă a trei copii (mother of three)”, etc. since numerals do not take definite articles. A similar situation is found in Aromanian, where the so-called genitival article of Daco-Romanian is not expressed, but the genitive contructions are marked by the preposition a only, which is considered (definite) article by T. Papahagi (49), but he was wrong about it. The same phenomenon is found in some Romance and other languages .

It derives from with PIE *ad ‘at, next to’ (IEW, 3); cf. Oscan az ‘at’ Gaulish ad  ‘at’, Welsh add ‘d’, Gothic at ‘at, next to’, OHG az ‘at, next to’.

 

abạc (n., neut.) – abacus, counting frame.

From Italian abbaco ‘id’ > Neo-Greek άμπάκος (Gáldi, Les mots, 143) or from French abaque (Cioranescu, 5).

 

abanọs (n., masc.) – ebony, ebony tree.

Turkish abanos ‘id’ > Neo-Greek  αμπάνος (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, 2, 5; REW, 2816; Cioranescu, 7); cf. Albanian abanos ‘id’, Bulgarian abanos ‘id’. It is of Semitic origin which was borrowed into Medio-Greek and Medieval Latin (hebenus) and from Latin into (most) European languages.

 

abạte (vb., III) (Aromanian abat ‘id’) – 1. to turn off, aside, away; 2. to push or drive away; 3. to desuade (from).

Medieval Latin abbattere (Puşcariu, 2; REW, 1; Cioranescu, 8).

It is a derivative of Romanian language from a bate ‘to beat’, prefixed with a, an usual method of  verb derivation in Romanian (as one may see throughout this dictionary). In fact, the verb a bate has various meanings. Latin abbatere ‘to descend, to supress’  is not attested before 6th century AD. Its first attestation is found in the Salic Law (507-511) (cf. Niermeyer, 1,1), a legal code based on old Germanic traditions, formulated by Salic Franks (see bate).

 

abiạ (Aromanian avia) (adv.) – 1. hardly; 2. scarcely, very little, next to nothing; 3. only, just, merely.

Latin *ad-vix < vix ‘just, hardly’ (Philippide, Principii, 91; Puşcariu, 3; Candrea-Densusianu, 224; Cioranescu, 12) or from OCS abije ‘immediately’ (Cihac) which is semantically different from Romanian abia.

Romanian abia is a cognate of Latin vix, but it cannot derive from it, nor from unattested *ad-vix which would yield in Romanian *avis, or *abis, but not abia. On the other hand, it has no cognates in other Romance languages.

In order to explain the origin of Latin vix, Walde (2, 810) argues that it derives from a PIE *ŭiqŭ-s ‘heavy, overwhelming’ which, he believes, is cognate with Greek ιπόω ‘to lie heavily on, to squeeze’. If he is right, then Romanian abia may derive form the same (or similar) root as Latin vix. In this case the labio-velar turned into voiceless labial p, a frequent phonological transformation in Thraco-Dacian (see Argument to DELR). Afterwards, it turned into the voiced bi-labialb.

 

abitịr (adv.) (obs.) – much better, stronger.

Turkish better ‘worse’ (Cioranescu, 14) or Turkish abeter, the comparative form of abe ‘clear’ (Şăineanu, 2, 6; DAR). Cioranescu rejects this hypothesis, although it is much more plausible than his. It is used, in general, with the comparative adverb mai ‘more’.

 

abrạş (Aroumanian abraşcu „insolent, impertinent”) (adj.) – 1. vicious, restive (about horses); 2. wicked, violent (about people).

Turkish abraş (Şăineanu, 2, 7; Cioranescu, 21). Şăineanu believes that Turkish borrowed it from Arabic. I have to mention that the word is found in Albanianabrash and Bulgarian abraš as well.

In fact, this adjective cannot be of Turkish or Arabic origin since there are several cognates in various Indo-European languages. It derives from PIE *abhro- ‘strong, violent’ (IEW, 2); cf. Welsh afr ‘very’, Illyrian tribe name Abroi, Thracian Abro- (in personal names), Gothic abrs ‘strong, violent’, English brash. Therefore, it seems that Turkish borrowed it from Romanian or other Balkan language. Thraco-Illyrian origin.

 

Abrụd – town in Transylvania.

This place-name is attested since ancient times as Abruttum, the ancient name of this city (cf. Giurescu, 1, 125). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

abuạ (vb., I) –  to fall asleep, to sleep.

A regionalism (Transylvania) avoided by the authors of etymological dictionaries.

It derives form PIE *au-, au-es-, au-s- ‘to stay overnight, to sleep’ (IEW, 72); cf. Armenian aganim ‘to stay overnight, to spend the night’, Greek ιαύω ‘to sleep’. In Thraco-Dacian PIE *u turned into v or b at initial or in intervocalic position (see vatră).  Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

aburcạ (vb., I) – to climb, to go up.

From Latin *arboricare < arbor (Puşcariu, ZRPh., 31, 616; DARREW606). Cioranescu (29) rejects  Puşcariu’s hypothesis and proposes *aboricare < *boricare < *oricare, from Latin orior ‘to climb’.  Romanian aburca is cognate to Latin orior, but in fact, it is a derivative of a urca ‘to go up, to mount, to ascend (prefixed with ab-) from PIE *er-, *or- ‘to set in motion, to go up, to rise’ (IEW, 326); cf. Hittite šark ‘to climb, to go up’, Sanskrit abhy-uccar ‘to go up, to climb’, Avestan ar ‘to set in motion’, Greek όρνυμι ‘to move, to rise’ (see urca). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

ạbur (Aromanian abur) (n., masc.) – steam, vapor.

It was considered to be of Thraco-Dacian origin since Miklosich (Slaw. Elem., 9), although some other linguists after him believed to be a loan-word from Albanian abull ‘id’ (Cihac, 2, 714; Philippide, 2, 605, Meyer, EWA, 28). Instead Cioranescu (28) wants for it a Latin origin, namely form Latin albulus ‘white spot’. These two hypotheses were rejected by other linguists.

Later on, in the second half of the 20th century, Brâncuş (VALR, 28) shows that it is of Thraco-Dacian origin. I have to mention that today, most linguists consider it of Thraco-Dacian origin. Indeed, it derives from PIE *bholo- ‘stem, fog’ (IEW, 162) through an older *ad-bolo > Romanian abur; cf. Albanian avull „id” (Gheg dialect), abull ‘id’ (Tosk dialect). The root is found in other Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit busa ‘steam, fog’, Old Irish boladh ‘smell’, Lithuanianbula ‘fog, steam’, Latvian buls ‘id’. Thraco-Illyrian origin (see boare ‘breeze’, bură ‘drizzle, fog’).

Derivatives: a aburiaburealăaburireaburos.

 

ac (Aromanian ac) (n., neut.) – needle, sting.

Latin acus ‘wheat husk, needle’ (Puşcariu, 6; Candrea-Densusianu, 3; REW, 130, Cioranescu, 30).

The root is found in words of many  Indo-European languages  from PIE *ak’-, ok’- ‘sharp’ (IEW, 18); cf. Greek αχυρός, OHG ahir, Gothic ahanaakeit‘vinegar’, Old Icelandic ogni, Lithuanian akutas, OCS ociti, Old Irish acat ‘vinegar’,as well as Greek άκρος ‘mountian tip’, Greek ακήακμήv ‘top’, Old Latinocris ‘hill’, Umbrian ukarucar ‘hill’.  The root is found in other Romanian words as well (see acru ‘sour’, oţet ‘vinegar’).

 

acadeạ (n., fem.) (obs.) – a candy made of melted sugar.

Turkish  akıde ‘id’ < Arabic akīda (Şăineanu, 2, 7; Cioranescu, 31).

 

acạsă (Aromanian acasă) (adv.) – home, at home.

It is a derivative of  casă ‘house’ prefixed with preposition a² (see a² and casă).

 

acatịst (n., neut.) – 1. hymn and mass honoring Virgin Mary and saints. 2. a list of names of people given to the priest to pray for them.

Greek ακάθιστος ‘id’ < καθίζω ‘to lie down’ with a privative α, because such hymns are sung standing (cf. Cioranescu, 36).

Derivatives: acatistier ‘a book of such hymns’.

 

acătặrii (variants acătareaacătăreaacătare) (adj.) – 1. good, beautiful, nice; 2. appropriate.

There are several hypotheses regarding the origin of this word: from Latin *ad-que-tale (Cipariu, Gram., 2, 60) or de cătare (Philippide, Principii, 8) or de atare(Puşcariu, 8) and finally from Latin *eccum talis (Cioranescu, 35). None of these solutions can be accepted for various reasons. The Latin ‘etymons’ are not plausible compounds, without any correspondent forms in other Romance languages, while  de cătare and de atare do not explain the presence of initial a and the elision of preposition de. It should be associated with the verb a căuta ‘to look for, to search’ from PIE *keu-, skeu- „to look at, to observe” (IEW, 587) (seecăuta).

 

acăţạ (variant a agăţa, Aromanian acaţu) (vb., I) – 1. to hang (up), to hook up.

Latin *accaptiare < captiare ‘to catch, to try to catch’ (Philippide, Principii, 43; Puşcariu, Lat. ti, 12; Candrea-Densusianu, REW, 1663). Even if we admit the existence of a Latin *accaptiare, one cannot explain why pt turned into t or ţ (ts). The root is found in other Balkan languages; cf. Bulgarian kacja and  kace(kacja) ‘bramble’ or  Hittite aggati ‘a catching net’.  Other Romanian words such as caţă ‘a catching tool’, căţăra ‘to climb, to clamber’ derive form the same root. Thus we may reconstruct  IE *kati- ‘to hang up, to catch’  (see caţă, căţăra). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

acẹlacẹla (Aromanian aţel) (dem. pron.) – that.

Lat. *ecce illi, *ecce illa (Diez, I, 337; Puşcariu, 9; Candrea-Densusianu, 532; REW, 4266). This hypothesis cannot be accepted. Romanian acel(a) is a derivative of ăl(a) prefixed with ac- found in other compound form (see acest(a) ‘this’, acum ‘now’, aici ‘here’, aşa ‘thus’).

Romanian ăl seems to derive from PIE *al-, ol- (cf. IEW, 24), not form Latin illeillum. The root reconstructed by Walde-Pokorny does not explain -ll- of Latinille, neither OCS onŭ, Lithuanian ans, Armenian naayn, OHG ener. Therefore, PIE root *ol-ne, reconstructed by  Ernout-Meillet explains much better all the forms mentioned above and the definite article in Celtic languages; cf. Irish an, Breton an, aral, Welsh yyr. On the other hand, Romanian ăl is closer to Umbrian uluulo ‘illuc’ and Oscan ulas ‘illius’ then to Latin ille (see a³, ăl, acest).

 

acerạ (variants aciraacina) (reg.) (vb., I)  – 1. to wait; 2. to watch (Banat).

Latin *acinari (Graur, BL, 4, 64; Cioranescu, 45). Latin acinari has no attestation. On the other hand, Puşcariu (Dacor., 2, 592) thinks that it derives from Albanian kjëlloni „to take care”, but the derivation it is not possible, althoguh this Albanian verb is a cognate of Romanian acera. It seems to be of Thraco-Illyrian origin.

 

acẹst, acẹsta (variant ăsta, Aromanian aţestu, aest(ŭ)) (dem. pron.) –  this.

Latin isteistaistud ‘id’ (Puşcariu, 11; Candrea-Densusianu, 13; REW, 4553; Cioranescu, 46). Romanian acest(a) is a derivative of ăsta ‘this’ which is rather a cognate of Latin iste. Again Roamania ăsta comes closer to Umbrian estu ‘istum’, esto ‘ista’; cf. Albanian -to ‘this’.

 

acioạie (variant cioaie) (n., fem.) – bronze, yellow brass.

Italian acciaio ‘steel’ (Hasdeu, Etym.DAR; Cioranescu, 49). Candrea and Scriban reject this hypothesis, although Hasdeu seems to be right.

 

aciuạ (variant aciuiaaciolaacina) (vb., I) – to hide, to shelter.

OCS utečati ‘to run’ (Cihac, 9). Latin *acellare < Latin cella ‘hiding place’ (Philippide, ZRPh., 31, 287; Puşcariu, Conv. lit., 1908, 602; REW, 1802; DAR), Latin *accubiliare (Candrea-Densusianu, 10) or Latin cieri ‘to incite, to call’ (Cioranescu, 50).

All four hypotheses are inadequate, either phonologically or semantically. Although Philippide is partially right, since Latin cella ‘hiding place’ is cognate to Romanian aciua.

Romanian aciua derives from PIE *kel- ‘to cover, to hide’, with the nominal from kolia ‘cover, hiding place’ (IEW, 553); cf. Latin cilium ‘eyelid’, Gothic hulian ‘to hide’, Old Norse hulia, OHG hullen ‘to cover’. The noun acioală ‘hiding place’ derives from k’olia and the verbal form aciola seems to be a derivative ofacioală. All these forms present an initial a, one of the derivation method found in Romanian languages. From the same root derive some other Romanian words without an initial a (see colibă ‘hut’  colnă a rudimentary shelter for animals or farming tools’ şoric ‘pork skin’). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

acọlo (variants acoleacoleaacoló, colo, Aromanian acló, aclói aclóţe, Istro-Romanian colo etc.) (adv.) – there, over there.

Latin *eccum illoc (Philippide, Principii, 92; Puşcariu, 15; Candrea-Densusianu, 12; REW, 4270; Cioranescu, 54). As in the case of aici (aci) ‘here’ and Romanian demonstrative pronouns, adverbs and prepositions, acolo cannot derive from some strange Latin compound.

Romanian acolo derives from PIE *kʷel- far away (in space or time’ (IEW, 640). Bomhard (316) reconstructs a Proto-Nostratic*(h)ul-, *(h)ol- ‘far off, far away, distant’; cf. Greek  τήλε ‘far off, far away’ and Welsh, Cornish, Breton pell „far away”, as well as in the Altaic family: cf. Classical Mongolian qola ‘far, distant’, Buriat χolo ‘far, distant’ (see acel, acest, încoace, încolo). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

acoperị (variant coperi, Aromanian acoapir) (vb., I) – 1. to cover; 2. to hide.

Latin cooperire ‘to cover’ (Puşcariu, 395; Candrea-Densusianu, 307; REW, 2205; Cioranescu, 2379). In Latin, cooperire was much less frequent then operio ‘id’ as opposed to aperio ‘to open’.

It is found in all Romance languages; cf. Italian coprire ‘id’, French couvrir ‘id’, Spanich cubrir ‘id’, Vegliote koprer ‘id’ etc. Only Romanian form has an initiala. Albanian kaplo ‘to cover’ cannot derive form Latin, but it seems it is a cognate of the Romance forms.

Both Latin forms o-perio and a-perio derive from the same PIE *uerio (Ernout-Meillet), found  also in Italic, Baltic, Slavic and Sanskrit languages; cf. Osco-Umbrian veru ‘door’, Lithuanian -veriu ‘to close’, ad-veriu ‘to open’, OCS viravreti ‘to close’ and Sanskrit apavrnoti ‘to open”’(III, sg.), apivrnoti ‘to close’ (III, sg.).

Derivatives: acoperireacoperământacoperişacoperitor.

 

ạcru (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian acru ‘sour’) (adj.) – sour.

Vulgar Latin *acrus < Latin acer ‘sharp, enthusiastic, violent’ (Puşcariu, 15; Candrea-Densusianu, 13; REW, 92; Cioranescu, 59). Cognates are found in all Romance as well as in Albanian egrë ‘sour’.

Latin acer derives from PIE *akeroker din ak-, ok’- ‘sharp’ (IEW, 24).

Derivatives: a acriacrealăacrişoracruţ.

 

acụm (variants acnuacmuamuacuacuşi, Aromanian amuamo ‘now’, Megleno-Romanian (a)cmoamumo ‘now’, Istro-Romanian (a)cmo, (a)hmo) ‘now’ (adv.) – now.

Latin *eccum modo (Philippide, Principii, 92; Puşcariu, 18; Candrea-Densusianu, 14; REW, 5630, Cioranescu, 65). The putative Latin ‘etymon’ *eccum modowould have a completely different meaning then Romanian acum. On the other hand, d of  modo should not drop off, even more it was not preserved in any of the many forms found in Romanian dialects.

In other words, Latin *eccum modo would give in Romanian *ec(u)mod, but not acmuacnu, the older forms for ‘now’. Romanian acnuacmu derive  from PIE *nu ‘now’ (IEW, 770), prefixed with ac-. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Latin  nunc ‘now’, Gothic nu ‘id’, OHG nu ‘id’, Lithuanian nu ‘id’, Tocharian A, B nu ‘id’, Old Irish nu ‘id’, Greek νυνυν ‘id’. The prefix ac- is quite usual in Romanian in demonstrative pronouns and adverbs (see acel ‘that’, acest ‘this’, aşa ‘thus’). Traco-Daian origin.

 

adălmạş (variant aldămaş) (n., neut.) – drink or meal offered after a transaction.

Hungarian adolmás ‘1. toast, blessing; 2. pitcher of wine (fig.)’ (Cihac, II, 475; Berneker, 27, Gáldi, Dict., 86; Cioranescu, 184).

Romanian adălmaş has the same origin as adămană ‘bribery, gift’; cf. Hungarian adomany ‘id’. Poghirc (ILR, 327) associates Romanian adămană with aademeni ‘to allure, to tempt’ and  considers it to be of Thraco-Dacian origin (see ademeni). Hungarian borrowed these forms from Romanian. The word is found in some other neighboring languages; cf. Ukrainian odomaš ‘gift’, Serbian aldumaš ‘salary’, Slovak aldomaš ‘salary’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

adăpạ (Aromanian adap, Megleno-Romanian dap, Istro-Romanian adopu) (vb., I) – 1. to give water to an animal; 2. (refl.) to drink water (about an animal).

Latin adaquare ‘to water, to sprinkle’ (Puşcariu, 20; REW, 147; Cioranescu, 69). The form is found only in Italian with the same meaning as in Latin The meaning of Romanian adăpa is found only in Vulgata, the Latin version of Septuaginta. The translation was done by Saint Hyeronymus, around 383 AD at the request of Pope Damasus. Saint Hyeronymus was born and lived part of his life in Illyria (see apă ‘water’).

 

adăstạ (Aromanian adastu) (vb., I) – to stand by, to wait.

Latin *adastare (Puşcariu, 22; REW, 148; Cioranescu, 72). Meyer-Lübke follows Puşcariu and translate Latin *adastare by ‘to wait in line, to hesitate’, while Cioranescu thinks that adastare means ‘to be present’. In fact, this verb has no attestation whatsoever, neither in Ancient Latin (cf. TLL), nor in Medieval Latin (cf. Niermeyer). On the other hand, there are no cognates in any other Romance language.

Romanian adăsta is a derivative of a sta ‘to stay, to stand’ prefixed with the preposition *ad (as in adăpaadăpost(i), etc), therefore from an older *ad-stare > *adastare ‘to stand by, to wait’ (see sta).

 

adăugạ (variant adăugi, Aromanian adavg) (vb., I) – to add.

Latin adaugere ‘to make bigger, to add’ (Puşcariu, 10; Candrea-Densusianu, 16; REW, 149; Cioranescu, 68).

Dervatives: adausadăugireadăugare.

 

adăpọst (n., neut.) – shelter.

Latin ad depositum or *addapostum (Philippide, Principii, 97; Tiktin; Puşcariu, 21; Rosetti, I, 161; Cioranescu, 70) or Latin ad appos(i)tum (Candrea-Densusianu) where appositum derives from appono ‘to put, to place’ from an Old Latin *adponno. All this discussion makes no sense since Old Latin cannot explain any Romanian etymology, unless one considers that a similar form may have existed in Thraco-Illyrian. Uncertain origin.

Derivatives: a adăpostiadăpostireadăpostealăadăpostitor.

 

adăuş (adj.) – heavy breathing (about animals) (western Trans.)

The authors of DAR assciate it with Hungarian dühös ‘angry, furious’, but this does make sense since the meaning of the two words are different. This adjective should be associated with adia ‘to breeze’ and duios. It derives PIE  *dheu-, *dheu- ‘to breeze, to breathe, breath’ (IEW, 261) prefixed with the preposition *adas adia (see adiaduios). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

adậnc (Aromanian adânc, Megleno-Romanian dănca) (adj.) – deep.

Latin aduncus (Puşcariu, 25; Candrea-Densusianu, 17; Tiktin).

Latin aduncus means ‘aquiline, curved’ in reference to body parts such as nose, beak or horns. Spanish adunco has the same meaning as in Latin (cf. Williams, 1988), while Romanian adânc has a completly different meaning. Obviously this hypothesis cannot be accepted. On the other hand, a Latin round vowel cannot turn into a middle or front vowel in Romanian. Because of this, Meyer-Lübke  (REW, 144) and Rosetti (ILR, 161) proposed a Vulgar Latin *adancus, but this form has no attestation or any cognates in any other Romance language. In other words, none of these two hypotheses can be accepted.

Romanian adânc may be associated with PIE *dheub-, dheup- *dheug-, *dheuk- ‘deep, hole’, dhumb hole or depression into the ground’ (IEW, 267). Romanian adânc seems to derive from *dheuk-, with a later nazal infix as in Celtic languages and prefixation with *ad, therefore a *ad-demk, *ad-denk; cf. Irishdomhain ‘deep’, Welsh dwfn ‘id’, Cornish down ‘id’, Breton doun ‘id’ as well as Gothic diups ‘id’ and Lithuanian dumbaris ‘a deep hole full of water’ can be added as a cognate.  Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: adâncireadâncimeadânciturăadâncit.

 

ademenị (vb., IV) – 1. to atract; 2 to seduce.

Cihac (2, 202) associates it with a momi ‘id’ and OCS mamiti ‘to cheat’. From Hungarian adomany ‘gift, donation’ (DAR; Cioranescu, 73). Instead, Hasdeu considers it to be of Thraco-Dacian origin (Col. lui Traian, 1874, 102). This Romanian verb has the same structure as adăpaadăpost(i), adăsta, namely a (verbal) root prefixed by preposition *ad. In other words, from an older *admeni. Poghirc (ILR, 327) shows that adămană ‘gift, bribe’ is related to Phrygianάδαμνειυτό (in Hesychius; cf. Hasdeu, Col. lui Traian, 1874, 102). As one may see the Phrygian form is built in the same manner. Pre-Roman origin (seeadălmaş, momi).

Derivatives: ademenireademenealăademenitor.

 

adẹs (variants adeseaadeseori) (adv.) – frequently.

It is a compound from from a² şi des (see des).

 

adevặr (Aromanian aver, Istro-Romanian veru ‘truly’) (n., neut.) – truth.

Vulgar Latin *ad-de-verum (Philippide, Principii, 96; Puşcariu, 24; REW, 9262; Cioranescu, 77).

This Latin ‘etymon’ cannot be accepted. It is not attested anywhere and there are no cognates forms in any Romance language to derive form this putative etymon. The Daco-Romanian and the Aromanian forms indicates an older *adver, from PIE *ŭer- ‘truth’ (Walde, 2, 728) prefixed with the preposition *ad, while Istro-Romanian veru kept the root as it was. The root can be found in many Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit ri-vrata ‘the one who tells the truth’, Latin verus ‘true’, OHG war ‘truth’, Irish fir ‘id’, Welsh gwir ‘id’, OCS vera ‘belief’, Avestan vərəne ‘to believe’, as well as Albanian vërtet ‘inded’, vërtetë ‘truth’.

Derivatives: a (seadeveriadeverinţăadeveritorneadevăr.

 

adiạ (variant aduia (Trans.) Aromanian adil’iu ‘1. to breathe; 2. to caress’) (vb., I) – 1. to blow, to breeze; 2. to breathe gently; 3. to caress.

Vulgar Latin *aduliare adulare ‘to adulate, to flatter’ (REW, 204) or Latin *adiliare ilia ‘intestines’ (Candrea, Conv. lit., 39, 119; Pascu, I, 102). It is obvious that both etymons should be rejected because their meanings are completely different.

Cihac (2, 1) thinks that it derives form Polish odwiač ‘to breathe’, while Scriban associates it with Bulgarian duja and Serbian dujem ‘to breathe’. The Slavic forms are, indeed, cognates to Romanian adia, but it can be derived from any of them, but all these forms derive from PIE *dheu-, *dheu- ‘to breeze, to breathe, breath’ (IEW, 261); cf. Sanskrit  apa-dvan ‘to rise’ upa-dvan ‘to fly towards’. The Aromanian form indicates an older *adilio, -are. Again the verbal root is prefixed by preposition *ad. It is related to duios ‘loving, affectionate’ and adăuş ‘heavy breathing’ (see duios, adăuş). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

adịcă (variants adecăadicătăleadicătălea) (adv.) – 1. namely, strictly speaking; 2. therefore.

For this Romanian word there were proposed some of the most bizarre etymologies.

From Greek δική ‘justice’ (Hasdeu, Etym.; Jarnik, ZRPh., 27; Candrea, Elem., 64) or Latin ad id quod (Philippide, Principii, 7) or even Turkish (Arabic) dakika‘moment, second’ (Lokotsch, 469) and some others not worthy to mention. Obviously, none of these etymologies can be accepted.

Nevertheless, there is a Latin adaeque (ad-aeque) ‘equally, thus’ (in Corpus glosslat., 5, 21; cf. Cioranescu, 81) which the Latin verb adaequo ‘to make equal’ derives from (cf. Glare, 1997). On the other hand, Latin adaeque is extremely rare and one cannot tell if it can be associated with Romanian adică. Furthermore, there are not cognates in any Romance languages. However, it may be associated with a zice ‘to say’, since it has a similar meaning with the expression va să zică‘therefore’, although it is not clear why d did not turn into z. Uncertain origin (see zice).

 

adineạuri (variants adineaoriadineaorea) (adv.) – a little while ago, not too long ago.

Latin in illa hora (Puşcariu, 26; REW, 4146) would give in Romanian *ilioară or *inioară, similar to Italian allora < illa hora. Latin *ad de in illa horam(Puşcariu, 26). This hypothesis does not make any sense. Needless to say that a compound of five Latin elements to ‘explain’ the etymology of a Romanian word cannot be accepted. This adverb should be associated with oară ‘time’ and odinioară (see oarăodinioară).

 

adịns (variants înadinsdinadins) (adv.) – on purpose, deliberately.

Latin *ad ipsum illum (REW, 4541; DAR) or Latin ad idipsum ‘just for this’ (Cioranescu, 84). In both cases the derivation is not possible. It is a derivative of ins‘individual’ (see ins).

 

adormị (Aromanian adormu) (vb., IV)  – 1. to fall asleep; 2. death, demise (rel.).

Latin addormire ‘to fall asleep’ (Puşcariu, 27; Candrea-Densusianu., 509; REW, 157; Cioranescu, 92) (see dormi ‘to sleep’).

Derivatives: adormireadormitoradormiţéle ‘pasqueflowers, morning glories’.

 

adụce (Aromanian aduc, Megleno-Romanian duc, Istro-Romanian aducu) (vb., III) – 1. to bring; 2. to bend; 3. to be like, to resemble.

Latin adducere ‘to pull’ (Puşcariu, 28; Candrea-Densusianu., 518; REW, 160; Cioranescu, 94); cf. Italian addure, Catalan adur, Spanish aducir (see duce).

Derivatives: aducereaducăturăadusăturăaducător.

 

adulmecạ (variants adulmaaulmaolm „smell”, ulma „id”) (vb., I) – 1. to scent, to smell, to sniff, to follow by smell; 2. to sense, to notice.

Latin *adolmicare (Hasdeu, Etym., 386; Puşcariu, 29) or Latin *adosmare (REW, 6112). Cioranescu (95) considers it of obscure origin, but he associates it with Latin *adosmare < Latin *osmare, from Greek οσμάω ‘to sniff, to smell’. None of these hypotheses can be accepted, since the proposed etymons are not attested or there are no cognates in any of the Romance languages. On the other hand, Romanian adulmeca is cognate to Greek οσμάω.

Romanian adulmeca derives from PIE *od- ‘to smell’, *od-ma ‘smell, aroma, perfume’ (IEW, 712); cf. Armenian hot ‘steam, smell’, hotim ‘to smell’, Homeric Greek οδμή, Dorian Greek οδμά ‘steam, smell’, Latin odefacioolefacio ‘to smell’, oleo ‘to smell, to stink’, Lithuanian ǔodžiu ‘to smell’. It seems that the Romanian verb derives from the nominal form *odma smell’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: adulmecareadulmecător.

 

adunạ (Aromanian adun, Megleno-Romanian dun, Istro-Romanian aduru) (vb., I) – 1. to gather, to bring together; 2. to heap, to accumulate; 3 to add.

Latin adunare ‘to unite, to bring together’ (Puşcariu, 31; REW, 209; Cioranescu, 97); cf. Italian adunare, Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese aunar. The verbal formadunare is rare in Latin (only in a few Late Latin glosses), while the noun adunatio ‘gathering, reunion’ is found more often.

Derivatives: adunareadunatadunăturăadunător.

 

ạer (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian aeru) (n., neut.)  – 1. air; 2. look, appereance.

Latin aer (Puşcariu, 43; REW, 240; DAR; Cioranescu, 101). Panromanic; cf. Albanian ajër ‘id’. The meaning #2 is borrowed from French. The word itself is not a modern loanword since it is attested in Romanian Balkan dialects.

Derivatives: a aeraaerealăaerescaerianaerisi < Neo-Greek αερίζω, as well as modern loanwords such as aeroplanaeronautaeronavă etc.

 

afạră (Aromanian afoară) (adv.) – outside, beyond.

Latin ad foras < foras ‘outside’ (Puşcariu, 33; Candrea-Densusianu, 550; REW, 265; Cioranescu, 105); cf. Italian fuori, Old French afors, Spanish afuera.

Walde (1, 529) erroneously derives Latin  foris (foras) from PIE *dhuor door’.

However, there are similar forms in other Indo-European languages; cf. Albanian afër ‘next, close’, Gothic afar ‘beyond’, Hittite para ‘outside’, Sanskrit apara‘behind, later’, Armenian ap΄n ‘shore’, OHG ufer ‘shore’. All these forms seem to derive from PIE *āpero ‘shore’ (IEW, 53).

 

ạfin (Aromanian afin) (n., masc) – blueberry bush (Vaccinium myrtillus).

Hungarian afonya (Cihac, 2, 475), but Cihac is wrong about it, since the form is found in Aromanian as well, which is spoken in Greece, Albanian and southern Bulgaria and therefore  it cannot borrow it form Hungarian. From Latin daphne ‘laurel’ (Herzog, RF, 1, 94-104). In this case, the derivation is not possible, although the two forms are cognates. Romanian afin should be associated with Calabrian afina ‘laurel’ which seems to be inherited from Oscan language. Latindaphne is a loanword from Greek δάφνη. Chantraine (255) argues that the Greek form is of Mediterranean origin; cf. Micenian dapu. From Romanian it was borrowed into other neighboring languages; cf. Ukrainian jafina ‘id”’, Polish iafira ‘id’, Transylvanian Saxon afunie ‘id’. There is no doubt that Hungarianafonya is a loanword from Romanian as well. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: afinăafinişafinată.

 

aflạ (Aromanian aflu, Istro-Romanian oflu) (vb., I) – 1. to find out, to come up with; 2. to hear, to learn.

Latin afflare ‘to breathe’ (Puşcariu, 34; Candrea-Densusianu, 19; REW, 261; Cioranescu, 114). There are similar forms in other Romance languages; cf. Veglioteaflatura, Calabrian ahhare, Spanish haller ‘to find’, Portuguese achar ‘id’, Romansch afla ‘id’.

The meaning of Latin afflare is completely different, therefore, it cannot be the etymon of Romance forms which seems to be of Pre-Roman origin.

Schuchardt (ZRPh., 20, 536) believes that there was a meaning deviation of the expression of mihi afflatur ‘one whispered to me’. Later on, he came up with another hypothesis (ZRPh, 31, 719; 32, 230), arguing that the meaning in Romance languages derives from the hunting jargon, namely the hound ‘find out’ by smelling (by breathing) the prey. I cannnot accept such an “explanation” even if it comes from one of the greatest linguists such as Hugo Schuchardt.  Corominas (3, 308) derives Spanich hallar ‘to find’ < Old Spanish falar. from Latin afflare.

A similar verb is found in Medio-Greek άλφειν ‘to search, to look for’, which made Cihac (2, 633) to believe that Romanian a afla is of Greek origin. The Medio-Greek  verb may be a loanword from Late Thraco-Dacian or from Proto-Romanian, since it is not attested in ancient Greek. It seems to be of Pre-Roman origin.

Derivatives: aflareaflător.

 

afurisị (Aromanian afurisire, Megleno-Romanian furisit) (vb., I) – 1. to excommunicate, to anathemize; 2. to curse, to damn.

Medio-Greek αφορίζω, aorist αφόρισα ‘id’ (Roesler, 565; Cioranescu, 117); cf. Bulgarian afurisati, Turkish aforoz. From Romanian it was borrowed into Transylvanian Saxon afurisin ‘to curse’.

Derivatives: afurisenieafurisit.

 

agạle (Aromanian agale) (adv.) –  slowly, step by step.

Neo-Greek αγαλία ‘slowly’ (Meyer, Neugr. St., 4, 6, Gáldi, 141; Cioranescu, 120), which, according to these authors, derives from Italian uguale. Italian ugualemeans ‘equal, same’ and, therefore, cannot be the etymon of these Balkanic forms. There is a similar form with the same meaning in Albanian ngadalë ‘slowly’ which cannot be a loanword from  Neo-Greek. Neo-Greek borrowed it from Aromanian. Thraco-Illyrian origin.

 

agă  (n., masc.) (obs.) – 1. high rank military officer in Turkish army.

Turkish aga ‘id’ (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, II, 10; Cioranescu, 118).

Derivatives: agie (obs.) ‘police headquarters’.

 

ageamịu (Aromanian ağami, Megleno-Romanian ağamiia) (adj.) – ignorant, incapable.

Turkish acemi < Arabic ağam ‘Barbarian’ (Şăineanu, II, 12; Cioranescu, 125); cf. Neo-Greek ατζαμής, Bulgarian ağamija.

 

ạger – 1. keen, penetrating; 2. active, industrious.

Latin agilis ‘agile’ (Cipariu, Gram., II, 344; Puşcariu, 37; Candrea-Densusianu, 19; REW, 230).

Turkish  acar (pron. agear) ‘industrious, keen, penetratating’ seems to be a loanword from Romanian.

Derivatives: a ageriagerime.

 

aghiạsmă (variant aiazmă, Aromanian agiazma, Megleno-Romanian ghiasmá) (n., fem.) – holy water.

Medio-Greek αγίασμα ‘id’ (Cioranescu, 129); cf. Albanian ajazmë ‘id’, Bulgarian agiazma ‘id’

Derivatives: a aghesmui ‘to sprinkle with holy water’, aghiazmatar ‘vessel for holy water’.

 

agâmbạ (vb., I) (dial.) – to hunt, to trample.

Latin gamba (Philippide, II, 643) or from Latin *aggambare (REW, 1529; DAR). Both hypotheses are rejected by Cioranescu (131). He considers it of unknown origin, especially because these “etymons” cannot explain forms such as agâmbeală ‘epilepsy’ and agâmbat ‘poor, unhappy person’.

Romanian agâmba seems to derive from PIE *gheubh- ‘to curb, to bend’ (Walde, I, 597; IEW, 450) with the epenthesis of m, a frequent phonological phenomenon in Romanian. Similar forms are found in some other neighboring Indo-European languages; cf. Latvian gubtugubt ‘to bend, to curb’, Lithuaniangeibus ‘weak’, Greek κυφος ‘curbed, bend’ (see gheb). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: agâmbealăagâmbat.

 

agina (vb., I) (reg., Olt.) – to cease, to stop.

It seems to be a compound form a verbal root gin- prefixed with the preposition a. I could not identify any cognate in other Indo-European languages. Unknown  origin.

 

agonisị (Aromanain agunisescu, Megleno-Romanian angunesés) (vb., IV) – 1. to work hard, to toil (obs.); 2. to gain; 3. to save.

Medio-Greek αγονίζομαι ‘to fight’ (Roesler, 563; DAR; Cioranescu, 134).

Derivatives: agonisealăagonisităagonisitor.

 

agrịş (n., masc.) – gooseberry bush (Ribes grossularia), barberry bush (Berberis vulagre).

Hungarian egres ‘gooseberry’ (Gáldi, 82; Cioranescu, 136), itself from MHG agras < Old French aigras < Latin acrus (cf. Cioranescu).

Berneker (2, 5) argues that OCS agres, Czech agrest, Polish agrest are deriving from Italian agresto ‘unripe grapes’. According to Miklosich (Fremdw., 73), Albanaian grestë as well as Serbian grešogrešta derive from Italian as well; cf. Russian agrestagrus ‘agriş’. According to  Vasmer (I, 5) the Russian forms are borrowed from Polish, Ukrainian agrest, which is also borrowed  from Italian agresto.

The forms presented above do not seem to derive from the same source, namely some of them may derive from Italian and others from Romanian. Italian agrestoseems to be cognate with Romnian aguridă ‘wild grapes’ found in Albanian as well. It is obvious that Latin acrus ‘sour’ and Romanian agriş derive from the same root. There are in Romanian other lexical elements deriving from the same root: acriş (dial.) ‘yoghurt’ and măcriş (variant macriş) ‘sorrel’ due to their taste. Hungarian egres is a loanword from Romanian (see acru ‘sour’, aguridă ‘wild grapes’).

Derivatives: agrişă.

 

ạgru (dial.) (Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian agru) (n., neut.) – field.

Latin agrum (acc. of ager „field”) (Puşcariu, 38; Candrea-Densusianu, 21; REW, 276). Latin ager derives from PIE *agro-s (Walde, 1, 22). The root has derivatives in many Indo-European languages: cf. Umbrian ager ‘id’, Sanskrit ajrah ‘id’, Greek αγρός ‘id’, Gothic akrs ‘id’, OHG ackar „id”, NHG Acker ‘id’. The form agru is used only in some dialects, including Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian. The usual form in today’s Daco-Romanian is  ogor (see ogor).

 

agụdă (n., fem.) – mullberry.

OCS *agoda (Hasdeu, 534). The Old Church Slavonic *agoda is not attested, but it was reconstructed from Serbian jagoda ‘wild strawberry’ and therefore the hypothesis cannot be accepted, since one does not know what the origin of Serbian jagoda is. On the other hand, Romanian agudă cannot derive from Serbianjagoda, which would give in Romanian *iagodă.

Romanian agudă derives from the same root as agriş and aguridă (see agrişaguridă), due to their sour taste (see acru).

 

agurạ (vb., I) (obs., dial.) – to predict, to forecast.

Latin a(u)gurare (Densusianu, Rom., 28, 61; Puşcariu, 39; Candrea-Densusianu, 23, REW, 784; DAR; Cioranescu, 139). The word is preserved in western Transylvania, only.

Cioranescu rejects Pascu’s hypothesis (1, 178) that Aromanian ugure ‘prophecy’ is not inherited, but a loanword from Turkish which borrowed it from Neo-Greek γουρί < Latin augurium. Latin origin.

 

agurịdă (variant acrid (obs.), Aromanian aguridă, Megleno-Romanian guridă) (n., fem.) – wild vine, wild grapes.

Medio-Greek αγουρίδα from άγουρος ‘green’ (Miklosich, Fremdw. 73; Cioranescu, 140); cf. Albanian aguridhë ‘id’, Bulgarian agurida ‘id’. The Medio-Greek forms invoked by Miklosich are not attested in this language (cf. Lampe). The variant acrid is a derivative of acru ‘sour’. It must be of Thraco-Illyrian origin, being present in Albanian and Bulgarian as well. It is related to agudă (see acru, agudă).

Derivatives: agurijoară „rose moss” (Portulaca grandifora).

 

ạgust (variants gustgustaragustru, Aromanian avgustu, Megleno-Romanian avgust) (n., masc.) – the month of August.

Vulgar Latin *agustus (Puşcariu, 40; Candrea-Densusianu, 24; REW, 786); cf. Albanian gusht ‘id’. Present day form august is a modern adaptation dating form 19th century.

 

ah (variant aaha) (interj.) – an interjection expressing pain.

The variants  a and aha are expressing surprise or satisfaction. According Cioranescu (142), it is an imitative formation; cf.  Sanskrit aho ‘interjection expressing as surprise or pain’. Both may be associates with PIE *ā ‘exclamation expressing wonder’ (IEW, 1) (see a¹).

 

ai (Aromanian,  Megleno-Romanian al’u, Istro-Romanian ol’u) (dial.) (n., masc.) – garlic.

Latin alium ‘garlic’ (Puşcariu, 47; Candrea-Densusianu; REW, 366; Cioranescu, 145). The root is found in Albanian and Sanskrit as well. cf. Albanian aj ‘id’, Sanskrit alu-halukam ‘root, bulb’.

All these forms derive from PIE *alu-, alō- ‘plant, bitter bulb’ (IEW, 33). Romanian ai is used only in some dialects of Transylvania of Daco-Romanian and in the Balkan dialects.

 

aicị (variant aci, Aromanian aoá, aţia ‘there’) (adv.) – here.

Latin *eccum-hic (Puşcariu, 12; Candrea-Densusianu, 8; REW, 4129). Panromanic. Similar forms are found in other Indo-European languages of different groups; cf. Umbrian essu, Oscan eks-, uk, Lithuanian čia ‘here’, and Sanskrit iha ‘here’. The particle a- is a deictic prefix, as in other Romanian words (see a³, acolo, acel).

Derivatives: acilea ‘id’ (cf. acolea).

 

aịdoma (adv.) – 1. same, identical; 2. real, indeed.

OCS vidomŭ ‘visible’ < OCS videti ‘to see’, which turned in Romanian into an adverb having added a prothetic a  (Cihac, 2, 2; Cioranescu, 149).

The Old Church Slavonic etymon invoked by Cihac is not attested (cf. Djačenko).  On the other hand, this hypothesis cannot explain the initial a. However, similar forms are found in Sanskrit and Lithuanian; cf. Sanskrit aviš ‘open before one’s eyes’, Lithuanian avytis ‘which can be seen’.

Obviously, all these froms are derivatives of the PIE *ụedi- „to see, to perceive” (IEW, 1125) (see vedea ‘to see’).

 

aieptạ (vb., I) – 1. to throw oneself forward; 2. to adjust, to smooth.

Vulgar Latin *aiectare from Latin eiectare ‘to throw’ (Puşcariu, 42; Candrea-Densusianu, 27; Cioranescu, 151). Diculescu (Elementele, 463) is dubious about this hypothesis and, instead he thinks that it derives from Greek ιάκτω ‘to throw’. Diculescu’s hypothesis seems to be more plausible, but the correct Greek form isίάπτω, which according to Boisaque (364), derives from PIE *(ii)-iaqŭ-io. Boisaque considers it of obscure origin, a loanword in ancient Greek, and according to him is cognate to Latin jacio ‘to throw’. It seems that the Greek verb is of Thracian or Illyrian origin, where PIE * turned into a p in these languages. (seecuptor ‘oven’, noapte ‘night’). With the second meaning, it seems to be a different verb all together. It seems to be of Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

aiẹvea (Aromanian aeveanaevea) (adv.) – 1. real, which looks real; 2. truly, indeed.

OCS javiti ‘to show, to present’ (Cihac, 2, 153; Berneker, 34; Cioranescu, 152); cf. OCS ave ‘obvious’ (Berneker, 2, 34) which seems to be a cognate to Romanian aievea.

I have to mention that the etymon invoked by Cihac is not attested (cf. Blagova, Djačenko). Cihac associates it with a a ivi ‘o appear, to show’. On the other hand, Romanian aievea has a cognate in Lithuanian ovijusovitis ‘to appear in a dream’ (see ivi).

 

aiụrea (Aromanian al’urea, Megleno-Romanian l’urea, Istro-Romanian al’ure) (adv.) – 1. elsewhere, somewhere, far away; 2. randomly,  which does not make sense.

Latin aliubi ‘other, another, someone else, something else’ (Creţu, 305; Candrea-Densusianu, 29; Cioranescu, 155); cf. French ailleurs, Old Spanish alubre, Portuguese alhur.  The meaning of Latin aliubi is different and it makes difficult to be the etymon of Romanian aiurea.  Furthermore, it is not the right etymon for the Romance languages forms, but a Vulgar Latin *aliore (REW, 347; Gamillscheg, 21), although Cioranescu (155) disagrees arguing that the etymon of Romanian aiurea is Latin *(vo)let, but his hypothesis does not make any sense.

Similar forms with the same meaning are found in some Geramnic languages; cf. Gothic aljar ‘elesewhere, somewhere’, Old English ellor, Old Norse ellior‘elsewhere’.

  1. Schmidt (1962, 70; cf. Lehmann, 28) argues that the Germanic forms derive from a Proto-Germanic *aljōr, which is (almost) identical to the Vulgar Latinaliorewhich is considered to be the etymon of the Romance forms. In other words, the so-called Vulgar Latin form is rather a Pre-Roman etymon.

Derivatives: a aiuraaiuritaiureală.

 

ajụn (Aromanian agiun „to be hungry”) (n., neut.) – 1. the day before a certain event or before a certain period of time starts; 2. a day of fasting.

Vulgar Latin *aiunare ieiunum ‘fast’ (Meyer, Alb. St., 4, 88; Philippide, 2, 645). Cognates are found in Spanish ayunar, French à jeun < ajeun), as well as Albanian agjenoj ‘to fast’. According to Corominas (1, 428), Spanish ayuno derives from a Vulgar Latin *iaiunus.

Walde-Hoffmann (1, 674) shows that Latin ieiunum derives from PIE *edi-unos ‘deprived of food’, or from *ieiu-s, *iaiu- ‘hunger’; cf. skt. adjunah „vorace, lacom”. On the other hand, Glare (821) considers Latin ieiunum of unknown origin.

Derivatives: a ajunaajunare.

 

ajụnge (Aromanian agiung, Megleno-Romanian jung) (vb., III) – 1. to arrive; 2. catch up, to reach (a destination).

Latin adiungere ‘to join, to glue’ (Puşcariu, 50; Candrea-Densusianu, 33; Cioranescu, 158). Panromanic.

Derivatives: ajungereajuns.

 

ajutạ (Aromanian agiut, Megleno-Romanian jut, Istro-Romanian (a)jut) (vb. I) – to help.

Latin adiutare ‘to help’ (Puşcariu, 51; Candrea-Densusianu, 33; REW, 171; Cioranescu, 160); cf. Italian ajutare, Provensal ajudar, Spanish ayudar.

Derivatives: ajutorajutătorajutarea ajutoraajutorare.

 

al (art., masc.) – genitival article.

It is a compound form from the preposition a and the definite article l < (ă)l.  It is used in genitive case. It is not the same with ălăla ‘that’ as all Romanian dictionaries and grammars maintain (see ălălaacela).

Derivatives: aaialealor.

 

alạc (n., masc.) – wheat variety which grows in mountainous regions.

Hungarian alakor ‘id’ (Cihac, 2, 475; Densusianu, Rom. 33, 273; Gáldi, 140). Cihac believes that Hungarian alakor derives from Latin alica ‘id’, but he gives no other details. Cioranescu (166) considers it of obscure origin. Corominas (1, 75) derives Spanish alaga from Latin *alaca; cf. Albanian lakër ‘greenstuff’. Romanian alac is a cognate of Spanish alaga, but they do not derive from the same Vulgar Latin form.

According to Walde (1, 29), Latin alica derives from Greek άλιξ (gen. άλικος), with the same meaning. One reason that these authors do not consider Romanianalac to be of Latin origin is the fact that intervocalic l did not undergo  rhotacism, but there are other exceptions to this rule (see bălan). Since the form is present in Greek, it may have existed in Thraco-Dacian as well.  Despite of what Romanian linguists were saying Edelspacher (8) shows that Hungarian alakor derives from Romanain alac.

 

alại (Aromanian alae) (n., neut.) – pump, show.

Turkish alay (Şăineanu, 2, 4; Roesler, 561, Cioranescu, 16); cf. Neo-Greek  αλάι, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian alay.

 

alạmă (Aromanian malamă „gold”) (n., fem.)  – 1. brass; 2. brass objects.

Neo-Greek μαλάμα ‘gold’ (Cioranescu, 171); cf. Albanian malamë ‘gold’. The elision of initial m in Romanian is due the association of this form with aramă‘copper’.

Derivatives: a alămialămaralămărie.

 

alandạla (adv.) – 1. wrong, upside down; 2. in disorder, mell-pell.

Neo-Greek άλλαντάλλον ‘one in the place of the other’ (Philippine, Principii, 146; DAR; Gáldi, Les mots, 142; Cioranescu, 173).

 

alặturi (variant alăturea) (adv.) – beside, next to.

Latin *ad latera (REW, 4934; Cioranescu, 175).

Latin *latera has no attestation, only lateralis < latus ‘wide’. There are no similar forms in other Romance languages. Therefore, we should consider it as a compound from a(d) ‘at’ lături (plural of latură) (see latură).

Derivatives: a alăturaa înlătura.

 

alb (Aromanian albu, Megleno-Romanian alb) (adj.) – white.

Latin albus ‘white’ (Puşcariu, 55; Candrea-Densusianu, 36; REW, 331; Cioranescu, 176). The root is attested also in some Dacian and Thracian place-names such as Apulum (see Apulum) and personal names such as Albos (Proklou) (Samsaris, in Noi, Tracii, 24, 1991). It it found in a number of other Indo-European languages: cf. Hittite alpa-as ‘clouds’, ali ‘white’, Greek αλφός ‘id’, Umbrian alfu ‘id’, Welsh elfydd ‘id’, OHG albiz, Gallo-Roman  Albion ‘Brittania’, Middle Irish Albbu ‘Brittania’, Scottish Alba ‘Scotland’, Lithuanian alvas ‘white’, all from  PIE *albho- ‘white’ (IEW, 30). We may consider it of Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives:  a albialbeaţăalbiturăalbeţealbiciosalbinosalbineţalbişora înălbiînălbeală etc.

 

albạstru (Aromanian albastru ‘grey’) (adj.) – blue.

Latin *albaster albus ‘white’ (Puşcariu, 56; Candrea-Densusianu, 37; REW, 319; Cioranescu, 177). The hypothesis cannot be accepted since there is no attestation of the putative Latin etymon and there no cognates in other Romance languages. Romanina albastru is a derivative of alb which probably meant initially ‘grey’ as in today’s Aromanian (see alb).

Derivatives: a albăstrialbăstreaalbăstrealăalbăstriua înălbăstri etc.

 

ạlbie – (n., fem.)  – 1. river bed, channel ; 2. (washing) trough, tub.

Latin *alvea (Puşcariu, 58; Candrea-Densusianu, 43; REW, 320; Cioranescu, 178). Latin alveus ‘washing tub’ > Spanish alveo which is a masculine noun as in Latin, while Romanian albie is of feminine gender. There are no feminine cognates in other Romance languages. However, there are cognates in Scandinavian and Baltic languages; cf. Old Norse alda ‘wave’, Norwegian (dial.) olda ‘trough’, Old English aldotaldaht ‘trough, tub, vat’, Lithuanain aldjia ‘river bed’, which are of feminine gender as Romanian albie. All derive from  from PIE *aldh- ‘trough, tub’ (IEW, 31). Romanian albie is closer, as meaning and form, to Lithuanianaldjia; cf. Latin alveus ‘hollow, basket, bed’.

In Thraco-Dacian, the (aspirated or non-aspirated) PIE voiced dental *d(h), preceded by a lateral (lr) turned into b as in vorbă ‘word’ (cf. Latin verbum) (seevorbă). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: albiuţăalbioară.

 

albịnă (Aromanian alg’ină) (n., fem.) – bee (Ophris cornuta).

Latin *alvina < alveus ‘hollow, basket, bed’ (Puşcariu, 59; Candrea-Densusianu, 48; REW, 389; Cioranescu, 179). The hypothesis cannot be accepted. First of all, the meaning of Romanian albină has nothing to do with Latin alveus or *alvina. On the other hand, Latin *alvina has no attestation and there are no other Romance forms to derive from this Vulgar Latin etymon.  According to these authors, Romanian albie derives from the same Latin alveus (see albie) which does not make any sense. Latin apis ‘bee’ is cognate of Romanian albină, but this Romanian noun cannot derive from Latin apis. They both, along with many other Indo-European languages forms, derive from PIE *bhei- ‘bee”, with the formants  nkt (IEW, 116). The root is preserved in many Indo-European languages; cf. OHG bini „bee”, Albanian bletë „id”, Lithuanian bité „id”, Old Prussian bité „id’, Old Irish bech ‘id’, OCS bičela ‘id’.

On the other hand, Walde (1, 57) associates Latin apis with Gallo-Roman amella < *ampella, Greek έμπις ‘mosquito’, Farsi ang ‘bee’ and Basque abia‘mosquito, a biting insect’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: albinaralbinărel ‘a bird’, albinăriealbinărit.

 

alcătuị (vb., IV) – to put together.

Hungarian alkot-ni ‘to create, to procreate’ (Cihac, 2, 475; Cioranescu, 183). The putative Hungarian etymon has a different meaning and therefore, it cannot be accepted.

On the other hand, Romanian alcătui seems to have a cognate in Sanskrit šlokšlokate ‘to compose, to be composed’. From the Romanian and Sanskrit forms one may reconstruct a PIE *olk-at- ‘to put together, to gather’. It seems to be of Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alcătuirealcătuialăalcătuitor.

 

ạlde (art.)  a indefinite article meaning ‘of the kind of, people such as’.

It is a compound form from the demonstrative pronoun ăl and the preposition de (cf. Cioranescu, 163) (see ăl and de).

 

aleạn (adj., neut.) – 1. longing, yearning; 2. nostalgia, melancholy; 3. suffering, sorrow, grief.

OCS alinŭ ‘treacherous, perfidious’ (Cihac, II, 2) or Hungarian ellén ‘against’ (Cioranescu, 1869).

None of these two hypotheses can be accepted. OCS alinŭ is an adjecitve and it has a different meaning, while Hungarian ellén is a preposition while Romanianalean is a noun, but Cioranescu disregards this detail.

I think that Romanian alean may be associated with PIE *leno- ‘weak, soft’; cf. Greek  λιναμαι ‘to avoid, to shun’, Gothic af-linnan ‘to empty, to leave’, Gothicbi-linnan ‘to yield, to finish’, Old Irish linna ‘to slow down’, Middle Irish lian ‘soft’.There are other related forms in Romanan (cf. alinaalinta, lin). All derive from the same Proto-Indo-European root.

 

alẹge (Aromanian alegaleadzire (alepşualeaptă)) (vb., III) – 1. to choose; 2. to select, to separate.

Latin *allegere (Puşcariu, 60; REW, 364). This Vulgar Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no cognates in other Romance languages deriving from this putative etymon. Obviously, Romanian alege is related to Latin eligere  ‘choose, to select’, but their relationship is not clear.

Romanian  alege and Latin eligere derive from  PIE *leg-, leg’- ‘to gather’; cf. Latin lego, -ere ‘to gather, to select’, Greek  λέγω ‘to gather, to count, to read’, Albanian mb-leth ‘to gather’ (see culege ‘to gather’).

Derivatives: alegerealegător.

 

alẹi (variant alelei, Aromanian alai) (interj.) – an exclamation (before an invocation) expressing anger, enthusiasm or regret.

Suidas says that eleleu was ‘a war cry’ (cf. Cioranescu, 189); cf. Bulgarian olele.

PIE *alā ‘interjection used to attract someone’s attention’ (IEW, 29); cf. Sanskrit alala, Greek αλαλάαλαλαί ‘hoorah’, Greek ελελεΰ ‘war cry, interjection expressing pain’, Old English hallohalloo ‘hello’, Lithuanian aluoti ‘to cry hallo’. Thrace-Dacian origin.

 

alergạ (Aromanian alag, Megleno-Romanian lag) (vb., I) – 1. run, to rush; 2. to be busy.

Latin *allargare from largus (Philippide, II, 539; Puşcariu, 61; Candrea-Densusianu, 952; REW, 352). Instead, Cioranescu (192) considers it of uncertain origin.  The Latin etymon has no attestation and largus ‘wide’ has a totally different meaning. There no cognates in the other Romanace languages.

On the other hand, Albanian ljargon ‘to leave, to separate’ and largo ‘to move’ seem to be cognates of Romanian alerga.

The forms in both Romanian and Albanian seem to derive from PIE *leg- ‘to run (about water),  to leak, to melt’ (IEW, 659); cf. Old Irish legaim (I, sg.) ‘to leak, to melt’, Old Icelandic lekr ‘leak’, MHG lecken ‘spring, river’, Armenaina lič  ‘swamp’, Lithuanian lekti ‘to  run, to run away’.

One may see that in the Romanian Balkan dialects  the verb does not have  the lateral r, as in most other Indo-European languages. Therefore, the original form was *alagare, *alegare,  not *allargare. Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: alergarealergătoralergăturăalergat.

 

alică (variant alic, Aromanian hăliche) (n., fem.)  – pellet.

Neo-Greek  χαλίκι ‘pebble’ (DAR; Cioranescu, 198); cf. Albanian halič.

 

alifịe (Aromanian alfie) (n., fem.) – ointment, salve, unguent.

Neo-Greek αλουφή ‘id’ (Roesler, 564; Cioranescu, 200).

 

alinạ (vb., I) – 1. to temper, to mitigate, to allievate; 2. to appease, to soothe.

Latin *allenare (Puşcariu, 62; Candrea-Densusianu, 989; Rosetti, 1, 79).

The Latin etymon has no attestation, while Sardinian allenare ‘to teach, to instrucrt, to train’ is not a cognate since it has a totally different meaning. It is related tolin and alinta, all from PIE *leno- ‘weak, soft’ (IEW, 667) (see alintalin). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alinarealinatalinătoralinătură.

 

alintạ (vb., I)  – 1. to caress, to fondle; 2. to spoil; 3. to frolic.

Latin *allentare < lenis ‘soft, smooth, gentle, calm’ (Candrea-Densusianu, 990) or from Latin lentus ‘slow, flexible’ (Puşcariu, 64; REW, 257). Italian allentare ‘to loosen, to relax’ and Romanian alinta do not seem to derive from a common Vulgar Latin etymon. This verb is related to a alina from the same PIE root *leno- ‘weak, soft’ (IEW, 667) (see alinalinlenelinişte). Thabo-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alintalintarealintăturăalintător.

 

alişverịş (Aromanian alişverişe, Megleno-Romanian alişvăroş) (obs.) (n., neut.) – commerce, trade, business.

Turkish alişveriş < alıs ‘gift’ and verıs ‘to take’ (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, 2, 17; Cioranescu, 209); cf. Neo-Greek αλισβερίσι, Albanian alishverish, Bulgarianališveriš.

 

alt (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian altu, Istro-Romanian ot) (pron.) – other.

Latin *altru < alter ‘other’ (Puşcariu, 67; Candrea-Densusianu., 48; REW, 382). Panromanic; cf. Sardianian altu ‘other’. The root is found in other Indo-European languages; cf. Oscan alloaltram, Greek άλλος ‘other’, Welsh aile ‘id’, Breton all ‘id’, Lithuanian autra (adv.) ‘secondly’, Armenian ail ‘other’. All these forms derive PIE *alio-s ‘other’ (IEW, 25; Walde, 1, 30).

 

altạr (Aromanian altaraltare) (n., neut.) – altar.

Latin *altarium  ‘altar’ (Puşcariu, 68; Candrea-Densusianu, 49; REW, 381); Panromanic; cf. A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                        a¹ (variant ah) (interj.) – exclamation of pain, of wonder, etc.

According to Cioranescu (2), it is of imitative origin.

Although it may be considered of imitative origin, it appears in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit ā ‘exclamation of wonder’, Greek ά‘exclamation of indignation, pain’, Latin āāh ‘exclamation of pain, indignation, displeasure’, Gothic ō ‘exclamation of pain”, Lithuanian á ‘exclamation of pain’, all from Proto-Indo-European [hence PIE] *ā ‘exclamation of wonder’ (IEW, 1).

 

a² (Aromanian ato, at) (prep.) – to, at, next to.

Today it has a restricted use being replaced by la ‘id’ (see la).

Latin ad (Puşcariu, 1; Candrea-Densusianu, 1; REW, 136; Cioranescu, 1).

In Old Romanian, it was used in all situations where today it is used la: “şezu a dereapta lui Dumnezeu” (He sat on the right side of God) (Coresi; cf. Cioranescu), frequently found at the chroniclers, such as Dosoftei and other authors of 16th-17th centuries. Although today it is not used as much as several centuries ago, it is found in syntactical structures such as “miroase a flori’ (it smells like flowers) or a-casă ((at) home).

The forms of the so-called genitival article are compound forms of preposition a and the definite article ( -a, -l, -i, -le). This can be seen in noun phrases with a numeral such as “mamă a trei copii (mother of three)”, etc. since numerals do not take definite articles. A similar situation is found in Aromanian, where the so-called genitival article of Daco-Romanian is not expressed, but the genitive contructions are marked by the preposition a only, which is considered (definite) article by T. Papahagi (49), but he was wrong about it. The same phenomenon is found in some Romance and other languages .

It derives from with PIE *ad ‘at, next to’ (IEW, 3); cf. Oscan az ‘at’ Gaulish ad  ‘at’, Welsh add ‘d’, Gothic at ‘at, next to’, OHG az ‘at, next to’.

 

abạc (n., neut.) – abacus, counting frame.

From Italian abbaco ‘id’ > Neo-Greek άμπάκος (Gáldi, Les mots, 143) or from French abaque (Cioranescu, 5).

 

abanọs (n., masc.) – ebony, ebony tree.

Turkish abanos ‘id’ > Neo-Greek  αμπάνος (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, 2, 5; REW, 2816; Cioranescu, 7); cf. Albanian abanos ‘id’, Bulgarian abanos ‘id’. It is of Semitic origin which was borrowed into Medio-Greek and Medieval Latin (hebenus) and from Latin into (most) European languages.

 

abạte (vb., III) (Aromanian abat ‘id’) – 1. to turn off, aside, away; 2. to push or drive away; 3. to desuade (from).

Medieval Latin abbattere (Puşcariu, 2; REW, 1; Cioranescu, 8).

It is a derivative of Romanian language from a bate ‘to beat’, prefixed with a, an usual method of  verb derivation in Romanian (as one may see throughout this dictionary). In fact, the verb a bate has various meanings. Latin abbatere ‘to descend, to supress’  is not attested before 6th century AD. Its first attestation is found in the Salic Law (507-511) (cf. Niermeyer, 1,1), a legal code based on old Germanic traditions, formulated by Salic Franks (see bate).

 

abiạ (Aromanian avia) (adv.) – 1. hardly; 2. scarcely, very little, next to nothing; 3. only, just, merely.

Latin *ad-vix < vix ‘just, hardly’ (Philippide, Principii, 91; Puşcariu, 3; Candrea-Densusianu, 224; Cioranescu, 12) or from OCS abije ‘immediately’ (Cihac) which is semantically different from Romanian abia.

Romanian abia is a cognate of Latin vix, but it cannot derive from it, nor from unattested *ad-vix which would yield in Romanian *avis, or *abis, but not abia. On the other hand, it has no cognates in other Romance languages.

In order to explain the origin of Latin vix, Walde (2, 810) argues that it derives from a PIE *ŭiqŭ-s ‘heavy, overwhelming’ which, he believes, is cognate with Greek ιπόω ‘to lie heavily on, to squeeze’. If he is right, then Romanian abia may derive form the same (or similar) root as Latin vix. In this case the labio-velar turned into voiceless labial p, a frequent phonological transformation in Thraco-Dacian (see Argument to DELR). Afterwards, it turned into the voiced bi-labialb.

 

abitịr (adv.) (obs.) – much better, stronger.

Turkish better ‘worse’ (Cioranescu, 14) or Turkish abeter, the comparative form of abe ‘clear’ (Şăineanu, 2, 6; DAR). Cioranescu rejects this hypothesis, although it is much more plausible than his. It is used, in general, with the comparative adverb mai ‘more’.

 

abrạş (Aroumanian abraşcu „insolent, impertinent”) (adj.) – 1. vicious, restive (about horses); 2. wicked, violent (about people).

Turkish abraş (Şăineanu, 2, 7; Cioranescu, 21). Şăineanu believes that Turkish borrowed it from Arabic. I have to mention that the word is found in Albanianabrash and Bulgarian abraš as well.

In fact, this adjective cannot be of Turkish or Arabic origin since there are several cognates in various Indo-European languages. It derives from PIE *abhro- ‘strong, violent’ (IEW, 2); cf. Welsh afr ‘very’, Illyrian tribe name Abroi, Thracian Abro- (in personal names), Gothic abrs ‘strong, violent’, English brash. Therefore, it seems that Turkish borrowed it from Romanian or other Balkan language. Thraco-Illyrian origin.

 

Abrụd – town in Transylvania.

This place-name is attested since ancient times as Abruttum, the ancient name of this city (cf. Giurescu, 1, 125). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

abuạ (vb., I) –  to fall asleep, to sleep.

A regionalism (Transylvania) avoided by the authors of etymological dictionaries.

It derives form PIE *au-, au-es-, au-s- ‘to stay overnight, to sleep’ (IEW, 72); cf. Armenian aganim ‘to stay overnight, to spend the night’, Greek ιαύω ‘to sleep’. In Thraco-Dacian PIE *u turned into v or b at initial or in intervocalic position (see vatră).  Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

aburcạ (vb., I) – to climb, to go up.

From Latin *arboricare < arbor (Puşcariu, ZRPh., 31, 616; DARREW606). Cioranescu (29) rejects  Puşcariu’s hypothesis and proposes *aboricare < *boricare < *oricare, from Latin orior ‘to climb’.  Romanian aburca is cognate to Latin orior, but in fact, it is a derivative of a urca ‘to go up, to mount, to ascend (prefixed with ab-) from PIE *er-, *or- ‘to set in motion, to go up, to rise’ (IEW, 326); cf. Hittite šark ‘to climb, to go up’, Sanskrit abhy-uccar ‘to go up, to climb’, Avestan ar ‘to set in motion’, Greek όρνυμι ‘to move, to rise’ (see urca). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

ạbur (Aromanian abur) (n., masc.) – steam, vapor.

It was considered to be of Thraco-Dacian origin since Miklosich (Slaw. Elem., 9), although some other linguists after him believed to be a loan-word from Albanian abull ‘id’ (Cihac, 2, 714; Philippide, 2, 605, Meyer, EWA, 28). Instead Cioranescu (28) wants for it a Latin origin, namely form Latin albulus ‘white spot’. These two hypotheses were rejected by other linguists.

Later on, in the second half of the 20th century, Brâncuş (VALR, 28) shows that it is of Thraco-Dacian origin. I have to mention that today, most linguists consider it of Thraco-Dacian origin. Indeed, it derives from PIE *bholo- ‘stem, fog’ (IEW, 162) through an older *ad-bolo > Romanian abur; cf. Albanian avull „id” (Gheg dialect), abull ‘id’ (Tosk dialect). The root is found in other Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit busa ‘steam, fog’, Old Irish boladh ‘smell’, Lithuanianbula ‘fog, steam’, Latvian buls ‘id’. Thraco-Illyrian origin (see boare ‘breeze’, bură ‘drizzle, fog’).

Derivatives: a aburiaburealăaburireaburos.

 

ac (Aromanian ac) (n., neut.) – needle, sting.

Latin acus ‘wheat husk, needle’ (Puşcariu, 6; Candrea-Densusianu, 3; REW, 130, Cioranescu, 30).

The root is found in words of many  Indo-European languages  from PIE *ak’-, ok’- ‘sharp’ (IEW, 18); cf. Greek αχυρός, OHG ahir, Gothic ahanaakeit‘vinegar’, Old Icelandic ogni, Lithuanian akutas, OCS ociti, Old Irish acat ‘vinegar’,as well as Greek άκρος ‘mountian tip’, Greek ακήακμήv ‘top’, Old Latinocris ‘hill’, Umbrian ukarucar ‘hill’.  The root is found in other Romanian words as well (see acru ‘sour’, oţet ‘vinegar’).

 

acadeạ (n., fem.) (obs.) – a candy made of melted sugar.

Turkish  akıde ‘id’ < Arabic akīda (Şăineanu, 2, 7; Cioranescu, 31).

 

acạsă (Aromanian acasă) (adv.) – home, at home.

It is a derivative of  casă ‘house’ prefixed with preposition a² (see a² and casă).

 

acatịst (n., neut.) – 1. hymn and mass honoring Virgin Mary and saints. 2. a list of names of people given to the priest to pray for them.

Greek ακάθιστος ‘id’ < καθίζω ‘to lie down’ with a privative α, because such hymns are sung standing (cf. Cioranescu, 36).

Derivatives: acatistier ‘a book of such hymns’.

 

acătặrii (variants acătareaacătăreaacătare) (adj.) – 1. good, beautiful, nice; 2. appropriate.

There are several hypotheses regarding the origin of this word: from Latin *ad-que-tale (Cipariu, Gram., 2, 60) or de cătare (Philippide, Principii, 8) or de atare(Puşcariu, 8) and finally from Latin *eccum talis (Cioranescu, 35). None of these solutions can be accepted for various reasons. The Latin ‘etymons’ are not plausible compounds, without any correspondent forms in other Romance languages, while  de cătare and de atare do not explain the presence of initial a and the elision of preposition de. It should be associated with the verb a căuta ‘to look for, to search’ from PIE *keu-, skeu- „to look at, to observe” (IEW, 587) (seecăuta).

 

acăţạ (variant a agăţa, Aromanian acaţu) (vb., I) – 1. to hang (up), to hook up.

Latin *accaptiare < captiare ‘to catch, to try to catch’ (Philippide, Principii, 43; Puşcariu, Lat. ti, 12; Candrea-Densusianu, REW, 1663). Even if we admit the existence of a Latin *accaptiare, one cannot explain why pt turned into t or ţ (ts). The root is found in other Balkan languages; cf. Bulgarian kacja and  kace(kacja) ‘bramble’ or  Hittite aggati ‘a catching net’.  Other Romanian words such as caţă ‘a catching tool’, căţăra ‘to climb, to clamber’ derive form the same root. Thus we may reconstruct  IE *kati- ‘to hang up, to catch’  (see caţă, căţăra). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

acẹlacẹla (Aromanian aţel) (dem. pron.) – that.

Lat. *ecce illi, *ecce illa (Diez, I, 337; Puşcariu, 9; Candrea-Densusianu, 532; REW, 4266). This hypothesis cannot be accepted. Romanian acel(a) is a derivative of ăl(a) prefixed with ac- found in other compound form (see acest(a) ‘this’, acum ‘now’, aici ‘here’, aşa ‘thus’).

Romanian ăl seems to derive from PIE *al-, ol- (cf. IEW, 24), not form Latin illeillum. The root reconstructed by Walde-Pokorny does not explain -ll- of Latinille, neither OCS onŭ, Lithuanian ans, Armenian naayn, OHG ener. Therefore, PIE root *ol-ne, reconstructed by  Ernout-Meillet explains much better all the forms mentioned above and the definite article in Celtic languages; cf. Irish an, Breton an, aral, Welsh yyr. On the other hand, Romanian ăl is closer to Umbrian uluulo ‘illuc’ and Oscan ulas ‘illius’ then to Latin ille (see a³, ăl, acest).

 

acerạ (variants aciraacina) (reg.) (vb., I)  – 1. to wait; 2. to watch (Banat).

Latin *acinari (Graur, BL, 4, 64; Cioranescu, 45). Latin acinari has no attestation. On the other hand, Puşcariu (Dacor., 2, 592) thinks that it derives from Albanian kjëlloni „to take care”, but the derivation it is not possible, althoguh this Albanian verb is a cognate of Romanian acera. It seems to be of Thraco-Illyrian origin.

 

acẹst, acẹsta (variant ăsta, Aromanian aţestu, aest(ŭ)) (dem. pron.) –  this.

Latin isteistaistud ‘id’ (Puşcariu, 11; Candrea-Densusianu, 13; REW, 4553; Cioranescu, 46). Romanian acest(a) is a derivative of ăsta ‘this’ which is rather a cognate of Latin iste. Again Roamania ăsta comes closer to Umbrian estu ‘istum’, esto ‘ista’; cf. Albanian -to ‘this’.

 

acioạie (variant cioaie) (n., fem.) – bronze, yellow brass.

Italian acciaio ‘steel’ (Hasdeu, Etym.DAR; Cioranescu, 49). Candrea and Scriban reject this hypothesis, although Hasdeu seems to be right.

 

aciuạ (variant aciuiaaciolaacina) (vb., I) – to hide, to shelter.

OCS utečati ‘to run’ (Cihac, 9). Latin *acellare < Latin cella ‘hiding place’ (Philippide, ZRPh., 31, 287; Puşcariu, Conv. lit., 1908, 602; REW, 1802; DAR), Latin *accubiliare (Candrea-Densusianu, 10) or Latin cieri ‘to incite, to call’ (Cioranescu, 50).

All four hypotheses are inadequate, either phonologically or semantically. Although Philippide is partially right, since Latin cella ‘hiding place’ is cognate to Romanian aciua.

Romanian aciua derives from PIE *kel- ‘to cover, to hide’, with the nominal from kolia ‘cover, hiding place’ (IEW, 553); cf. Latin cilium ‘eyelid’, Gothic hulian ‘to hide’, Old Norse hulia, OHG hullen ‘to cover’. The noun acioală ‘hiding place’ derives from k’olia and the verbal form aciola seems to be a derivative ofacioală. All these forms present an initial a, one of the derivation method found in Romanian languages. From the same root derive some other Romanian words without an initial a (see colibă ‘hut’  colnă a rudimentary shelter for animals or farming tools’ şoric ‘pork skin’). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

acọlo (variants acoleacoleaacoló, colo, Aromanian acló, aclói aclóţe, Istro-Romanian colo etc.) (adv.) – there, over there.

Latin *eccum illoc (Philippide, Principii, 92; Puşcariu, 15; Candrea-Densusianu, 12; REW, 4270; Cioranescu, 54). As in the case of aici (aci) ‘here’ and Romanian demonstrative pronouns, adverbs and prepositions, acolo cannot derive from some strange Latin compound.

Romanian acolo derives from PIE *kʷel- far away (in space or time’ (IEW, 640). Bomhard (316) reconstructs a Proto-Nostratic*(h)ul-, *(h)ol- ‘far off, far away, distant’; cf. Greek  τήλε ‘far off, far away’ and Welsh, Cornish, Breton pell „far away”, as well as in the Altaic family: cf. Classical Mongolian qola ‘far, distant’, Buriat χolo ‘far, distant’ (see acel, acest, încoace, încolo). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

acoperị (variant coperi, Aromanian acoapir) (vb., I) – 1. to cover; 2. to hide.

Latin cooperire ‘to cover’ (Puşcariu, 395; Candrea-Densusianu, 307; REW, 2205; Cioranescu, 2379). In Latin, cooperire was much less frequent then operio ‘id’ as opposed to aperio ‘to open’.

It is found in all Romance languages; cf. Italian coprire ‘id’, French couvrir ‘id’, Spanich cubrir ‘id’, Vegliote koprer ‘id’ etc. Only Romanian form has an initiala. Albanian kaplo ‘to cover’ cannot derive form Latin, but it seems it is a cognate of the Romance forms.

Both Latin forms o-perio and a-perio derive from the same PIE *uerio (Ernout-Meillet), found  also in Italic, Baltic, Slavic and Sanskrit languages; cf. Osco-Umbrian veru ‘door’, Lithuanian -veriu ‘to close’, ad-veriu ‘to open’, OCS viravreti ‘to close’ and Sanskrit apavrnoti ‘to open”’(III, sg.), apivrnoti ‘to close’ (III, sg.).

Derivatives: acoperireacoperământacoperişacoperitor.

 

ạcru (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian acru ‘sour’) (adj.) – sour.

Vulgar Latin *acrus < Latin acer ‘sharp, enthusiastic, violent’ (Puşcariu, 15; Candrea-Densusianu, 13; REW, 92; Cioranescu, 59). Cognates are found in all Romance as well as in Albanian egrë ‘sour’.

Latin acer derives from PIE *akeroker din ak-, ok’- ‘sharp’ (IEW, 24).

Derivatives: a acriacrealăacrişoracruţ.

 

acụm (variants acnuacmuamuacuacuşi, Aromanian amuamo ‘now’, Megleno-Romanian (a)cmoamumo ‘now’, Istro-Romanian (a)cmo, (a)hmo) ‘now’ (adv.) – now.

Latin *eccum modo (Philippide, Principii, 92; Puşcariu, 18; Candrea-Densusianu, 14; REW, 5630, Cioranescu, 65). The putative Latin ‘etymon’ *eccum modowould have a completely different meaning then Romanian acum. On the other hand, d of  modo should not drop off, even more it was not preserved in any of the many forms found in Romanian dialects.

In other words, Latin *eccum modo would give in Romanian *ec(u)mod, but not acmuacnu, the older forms for ‘now’. Romanian acnuacmu derive  from PIE *nu ‘now’ (IEW, 770), prefixed with ac-. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Latin  nunc ‘now’, Gothic nu ‘id’, OHG nu ‘id’, Lithuanian nu ‘id’, Tocharian A, B nu ‘id’, Old Irish nu ‘id’, Greek νυνυν ‘id’. The prefix ac- is quite usual in Romanian in demonstrative pronouns and adverbs (see acel ‘that’, acest ‘this’, aşa ‘thus’). Traco-Daian origin.

 

adălmạş (variant aldămaş) (n., neut.) – drink or meal offered after a transaction.

Hungarian adolmás ‘1. toast, blessing; 2. pitcher of wine (fig.)’ (Cihac, II, 475; Berneker, 27, Gáldi, Dict., 86; Cioranescu, 184).

Romanian adălmaş has the same origin as adămană ‘bribery, gift’; cf. Hungarian adomany ‘id’. Poghirc (ILR, 327) associates Romanian adămană with aademeni ‘to allure, to tempt’ and  considers it to be of Thraco-Dacian origin (see ademeni). Hungarian borrowed these forms from Romanian. The word is found in some other neighboring languages; cf. Ukrainian odomaš ‘gift’, Serbian aldumaš ‘salary’, Slovak aldomaš ‘salary’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

adăpạ (Aromanian adap, Megleno-Romanian dap, Istro-Romanian adopu) (vb., I) – 1. to give water to an animal; 2. (refl.) to drink water (about an animal).

Latin adaquare ‘to water, to sprinkle’ (Puşcariu, 20; REW, 147; Cioranescu, 69). The form is found only in Italian with the same meaning as in Latin The meaning of Romanian adăpa is found only in Vulgata, the Latin version of Septuaginta. The translation was done by Saint Hyeronymus, around 383 AD at the request of Pope Damasus. Saint Hyeronymus was born and lived part of his life in Illyria (see apă ‘water’).

 

adăstạ (Aromanian adastu) (vb., I) – to stand by, to wait.

Latin *adastare (Puşcariu, 22; REW, 148; Cioranescu, 72). Meyer-Lübke follows Puşcariu and translate Latin *adastare by ‘to wait in line, to hesitate’, while Cioranescu thinks that adastare means ‘to be present’. In fact, this verb has no attestation whatsoever, neither in Ancient Latin (cf. TLL), nor in Medieval Latin (cf. Niermeyer). On the other hand, there are no cognates in any other Romance language.

Romanian adăsta is a derivative of a sta ‘to stay, to stand’ prefixed with the preposition *ad (as in adăpaadăpost(i), etc), therefore from an older *ad-stare > *adastare ‘to stand by, to wait’ (see sta).

 

adăugạ (variant adăugi, Aromanian adavg) (vb., I) – to add.

Latin adaugere ‘to make bigger, to add’ (Puşcariu, 10; Candrea-Densusianu, 16; REW, 149; Cioranescu, 68).

Dervatives: adausadăugireadăugare.

 

adăpọst (n., neut.) – shelter.

Latin ad depositum or *addapostum (Philippide, Principii, 97; Tiktin; Puşcariu, 21; Rosetti, I, 161; Cioranescu, 70) or Latin ad appos(i)tum (Candrea-Densusianu) where appositum derives from appono ‘to put, to place’ from an Old Latin *adponno. All this discussion makes no sense since Old Latin cannot explain any Romanian etymology, unless one considers that a similar form may have existed in Thraco-Illyrian. Uncertain origin.

Derivatives: a adăpostiadăpostireadăpostealăadăpostitor.

 

adăuş (adj.) – heavy breathing (about animals) (western Trans.)

The authors of DAR assciate it with Hungarian dühös ‘angry, furious’, but this does make sense since the meaning of the two words are different. This adjective should be associated with adia ‘to breeze’ and duios. It derives PIE  *dheu-, *dheu- ‘to breeze, to breathe, breath’ (IEW, 261) prefixed with the preposition *adas adia (see adiaduios). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

adậnc (Aromanian adânc, Megleno-Romanian dănca) (adj.) – deep.

Latin aduncus (Puşcariu, 25; Candrea-Densusianu, 17; Tiktin).

Latin aduncus means ‘aquiline, curved’ in reference to body parts such as nose, beak or horns. Spanish adunco has the same meaning as in Latin (cf. Williams, 1988), while Romanian adânc has a completly different meaning. Obviously this hypothesis cannot be accepted. On the other hand, a Latin round vowel cannot turn into a middle or front vowel in Romanian. Because of this, Meyer-Lübke  (REW, 144) and Rosetti (ILR, 161) proposed a Vulgar Latin *adancus, but this form has no attestation or any cognates in any other Romance language. In other words, none of these two hypotheses can be accepted.

Romanian adânc may be associated with PIE *dheub-, dheup- *dheug-, *dheuk- ‘deep, hole’, dhumb hole or depression into the ground’ (IEW, 267). Romanian adânc seems to derive from *dheuk-, with a later nazal infix as in Celtic languages and prefixation with *ad, therefore a *ad-demk, *ad-denk; cf. Irishdomhain ‘deep’, Welsh dwfn ‘id’, Cornish down ‘id’, Breton doun ‘id’ as well as Gothic diups ‘id’ and Lithuanian dumbaris ‘a deep hole full of water’ can be added as a cognate.  Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: adâncireadâncimeadânciturăadâncit.

 

ademenị (vb., IV) – 1. to atract; 2 to seduce.

Cihac (2, 202) associates it with a momi ‘id’ and OCS mamiti ‘to cheat’. From Hungarian adomany ‘gift, donation’ (DAR; Cioranescu, 73). Instead, Hasdeu considers it to be of Thraco-Dacian origin (Col. lui Traian, 1874, 102). This Romanian verb has the same structure as adăpaadăpost(i), adăsta, namely a (verbal) root prefixed by preposition *ad. In other words, from an older *admeni. Poghirc (ILR, 327) shows that adămană ‘gift, bribe’ is related to Phrygianάδαμνειυτό (in Hesychius; cf. Hasdeu, Col. lui Traian, 1874, 102). As one may see the Phrygian form is built in the same manner. Pre-Roman origin (seeadălmaş, momi).

Derivatives: ademenireademenealăademenitor.

 

adẹs (variants adeseaadeseori) (adv.) – frequently.

It is a compound from from a² şi des (see des).

 

adevặr (Aromanian aver, Istro-Romanian veru ‘truly’) (n., neut.) – truth.

Vulgar Latin *ad-de-verum (Philippide, Principii, 96; Puşcariu, 24; REW, 9262; Cioranescu, 77).

This Latin ‘etymon’ cannot be accepted. It is not attested anywhere and there are no cognates forms in any Romance language to derive form this putative etymon. The Daco-Romanian and the Aromanian forms indicates an older *adver, from PIE *ŭer- ‘truth’ (Walde, 2, 728) prefixed with the preposition *ad, while Istro-Romanian veru kept the root as it was. The root can be found in many Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit ri-vrata ‘the one who tells the truth’, Latin verus ‘true’, OHG war ‘truth’, Irish fir ‘id’, Welsh gwir ‘id’, OCS vera ‘belief’, Avestan vərəne ‘to believe’, as well as Albanian vërtet ‘inded’, vërtetë ‘truth’.

Derivatives: a (seadeveriadeverinţăadeveritorneadevăr.

 

adiạ (variant aduia (Trans.) Aromanian adil’iu ‘1. to breathe; 2. to caress’) (vb., I) – 1. to blow, to breeze; 2. to breathe gently; 3. to caress.

Vulgar Latin *aduliare adulare ‘to adulate, to flatter’ (REW, 204) or Latin *adiliare ilia ‘intestines’ (Candrea, Conv. lit., 39, 119; Pascu, I, 102). It is obvious that both etymons should be rejected because their meanings are completely different.

Cihac (2, 1) thinks that it derives form Polish odwiač ‘to breathe’, while Scriban associates it with Bulgarian duja and Serbian dujem ‘to breathe’. The Slavic forms are, indeed, cognates to Romanian adia, but it can be derived from any of them, but all these forms derive from PIE *dheu-, *dheu- ‘to breeze, to breathe, breath’ (IEW, 261); cf. Sanskrit  apa-dvan ‘to rise’ upa-dvan ‘to fly towards’. The Aromanian form indicates an older *adilio, -are. Again the verbal root is prefixed by preposition *ad. It is related to duios ‘loving, affectionate’ and adăuş ‘heavy breathing’ (see duios, adăuş). Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

adịcă (variants adecăadicătăleadicătălea) (adv.) – 1. namely, strictly speaking; 2. therefore.

For this Romanian word there were proposed some of the most bizarre etymologies.

From Greek δική ‘justice’ (Hasdeu, Etym.; Jarnik, ZRPh., 27; Candrea, Elem., 64) or Latin ad id quod (Philippide, Principii, 7) or even Turkish (Arabic) dakika‘moment, second’ (Lokotsch, 469) and some others not worthy to mention. Obviously, none of these etymologies can be accepted.

Nevertheless, there is a Latin adaeque (ad-aeque) ‘equally, thus’ (in Corpus glosslat., 5, 21; cf. Cioranescu, 81) which the Latin verb adaequo ‘to make equal’ derives from (cf. Glare, 1997). On the other hand, Latin adaeque is extremely rare and one cannot tell if it can be associated with Romanian adică. Furthermore, there are not cognates in any Romance languages. However, it may be associated with a zice ‘to say’, since it has a similar meaning with the expression va să zică‘therefore’, although it is not clear why d did not turn into z. Uncertain origin (see zice).

 

adineạuri (variants adineaoriadineaorea) (adv.) – a little while ago, not too long ago.

Latin in illa hora (Puşcariu, 26; REW, 4146) would give in Romanian *ilioară or *inioară, similar to Italian allora < illa hora. Latin *ad de in illa horam(Puşcariu, 26). This hypothesis does not make any sense. Needless to say that a compound of five Latin elements to ‘explain’ the etymology of a Romanian word cannot be accepted. This adverb should be associated with oară ‘time’ and odinioară (see oarăodinioară).

 

adịns (variants înadinsdinadins) (adv.) – on purpose, deliberately.

Latin *ad ipsum illum (REW, 4541; DAR) or Latin ad idipsum ‘just for this’ (Cioranescu, 84). In both cases the derivation is not possible. It is a derivative of ins‘individual’ (see ins).

 

adormị (Aromanian adormu) (vb., IV)  – 1. to fall asleep; 2. death, demise (rel.).

Latin addormire ‘to fall asleep’ (Puşcariu, 27; Candrea-Densusianu., 509; REW, 157; Cioranescu, 92) (see dormi ‘to sleep’).

Derivatives: adormireadormitoradormiţéle ‘pasqueflowers, morning glories’.

 

adụce (Aromanian aduc, Megleno-Romanian duc, Istro-Romanian aducu) (vb., III) – 1. to bring; 2. to bend; 3. to be like, to resemble.

Latin adducere ‘to pull’ (Puşcariu, 28; Candrea-Densusianu., 518; REW, 160; Cioranescu, 94); cf. Italian addure, Catalan adur, Spanish aducir (see duce).

Derivatives: aducereaducăturăadusăturăaducător.

 

adulmecạ (variants adulmaaulmaolm „smell”, ulma „id”) (vb., I) – 1. to scent, to smell, to sniff, to follow by smell; 2. to sense, to notice.

Latin *adolmicare (Hasdeu, Etym., 386; Puşcariu, 29) or Latin *adosmare (REW, 6112). Cioranescu (95) considers it of obscure origin, but he associates it with Latin *adosmare < Latin *osmare, from Greek οσμάω ‘to sniff, to smell’. None of these hypotheses can be accepted, since the proposed etymons are not attested or there are no cognates in any of the Romance languages. On the other hand, Romanian adulmeca is cognate to Greek οσμάω.

Romanian adulmeca derives from PIE *od- ‘to smell’, *od-ma ‘smell, aroma, perfume’ (IEW, 712); cf. Armenian hot ‘steam, smell’, hotim ‘to smell’, Homeric Greek οδμή, Dorian Greek οδμά ‘steam, smell’, Latin odefacioolefacio ‘to smell’, oleo ‘to smell, to stink’, Lithuanian ǔodžiu ‘to smell’. It seems that the Romanian verb derives from the nominal form *odma smell’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: adulmecareadulmecător.

 

adunạ (Aromanian adun, Megleno-Romanian dun, Istro-Romanian aduru) (vb., I) – 1. to gather, to bring together; 2. to heap, to accumulate; 3 to add.

Latin adunare ‘to unite, to bring together’ (Puşcariu, 31; REW, 209; Cioranescu, 97); cf. Italian adunare, Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese aunar. The verbal formadunare is rare in Latin (only in a few Late Latin glosses), while the noun adunatio ‘gathering, reunion’ is found more often.

Derivatives: adunareadunatadunăturăadunător.

 

ạer (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian aeru) (n., neut.)  – 1. air; 2. look, appereance.

Latin aer (Puşcariu, 43; REW, 240; DAR; Cioranescu, 101). Panromanic; cf. Albanian ajër ‘id’. The meaning #2 is borrowed from French. The word itself is not a modern loanword since it is attested in Romanian Balkan dialects.

Derivatives: a aeraaerealăaerescaerianaerisi < Neo-Greek αερίζω, as well as modern loanwords such as aeroplanaeronautaeronavă etc.

 

afạră (Aromanian afoară) (adv.) – outside, beyond.

Latin ad foras < foras ‘outside’ (Puşcariu, 33; Candrea-Densusianu, 550; REW, 265; Cioranescu, 105); cf. Italian fuori, Old French afors, Spanish afuera.

Walde (1, 529) erroneously derives Latin  foris (foras) from PIE *dhuor door’.

However, there are similar forms in other Indo-European languages; cf. Albanian afër ‘next, close’, Gothic afar ‘beyond’, Hittite para ‘outside’, Sanskrit apara‘behind, later’, Armenian ap΄n ‘shore’, OHG ufer ‘shore’. All these forms seem to derive from PIE *āpero ‘shore’ (IEW, 53).

 

ạfin (Aromanian afin) (n., masc) – blueberry bush (Vaccinium myrtillus).

Hungarian afonya (Cihac, 2, 475), but Cihac is wrong about it, since the form is found in Aromanian as well, which is spoken in Greece, Albanian and southern Bulgaria and therefore  it cannot borrow it form Hungarian. From Latin daphne ‘laurel’ (Herzog, RF, 1, 94-104). In this case, the derivation is not possible, although the two forms are cognates. Romanian afin should be associated with Calabrian afina ‘laurel’ which seems to be inherited from Oscan language. Latindaphne is a loanword from Greek δάφνη. Chantraine (255) argues that the Greek form is of Mediterranean origin; cf. Micenian dapu. From Romanian it was borrowed into other neighboring languages; cf. Ukrainian jafina ‘id”’, Polish iafira ‘id’, Transylvanian Saxon afunie ‘id’. There is no doubt that Hungarianafonya is a loanword from Romanian as well. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: afinăafinişafinată.

 

aflạ (Aromanian aflu, Istro-Romanian oflu) (vb., I) – 1. to find out, to come up with; 2. to hear, to learn.

Latin afflare ‘to breathe’ (Puşcariu, 34; Candrea-Densusianu, 19; REW, 261; Cioranescu, 114). There are similar forms in other Romance languages; cf. Veglioteaflatura, Calabrian ahhare, Spanish haller ‘to find’, Portuguese achar ‘id’, Romansch afla ‘id’.

The meaning of Latin afflare is completely different, therefore, it cannot be the etymon of Romance forms which seems to be of Pre-Roman origin.

Schuchardt (ZRPh., 20, 536) believes that there was a meaning deviation of the expression of mihi afflatur ‘one whispered to me’. Later on, he came up with another hypothesis (ZRPh, 31, 719; 32, 230), arguing that the meaning in Romance languages derives from the hunting jargon, namely the hound ‘find out’ by smelling (by breathing) the prey. I cannnot accept such an “explanation” even if it comes from one of the greatest linguists such as Hugo Schuchardt.  Corominas (3, 308) derives Spanich hallar ‘to find’ < Old Spanish falar. from Latin afflare.

A similar verb is found in Medio-Greek άλφειν ‘to search, to look for’, which made Cihac (2, 633) to believe that Romanian a afla is of Greek origin. The Medio-Greek  verb may be a loanword from Late Thraco-Dacian or from Proto-Romanian, since it is not attested in ancient Greek. It seems to be of Pre-Roman origin.

Derivatives: aflareaflător.

 

afurisị (Aromanian afurisire, Megleno-Romanian furisit) (vb., I) – 1. to excommunicate, to anathemize; 2. to curse, to damn.

Medio-Greek αφορίζω, aorist αφόρισα ‘id’ (Roesler, 565; Cioranescu, 117); cf. Bulgarian afurisati, Turkish aforoz. From Romanian it was borrowed into Transylvanian Saxon afurisin ‘to curse’.

Derivatives: afurisenieafurisit.

 

agạle (Aromanian agale) (adv.) –  slowly, step by step.

Neo-Greek αγαλία ‘slowly’ (Meyer, Neugr. St., 4, 6, Gáldi, 141; Cioranescu, 120), which, according to these authors, derives from Italian uguale. Italian ugualemeans ‘equal, same’ and, therefore, cannot be the etymon of these Balkanic forms. There is a similar form with the same meaning in Albanian ngadalë ‘slowly’ which cannot be a loanword from  Neo-Greek. Neo-Greek borrowed it from Aromanian. Thraco-Illyrian origin.

 

agă  (n., masc.) (obs.) – 1. high rank military officer in Turkish army.

Turkish aga ‘id’ (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, II, 10; Cioranescu, 118).

Derivatives: agie (obs.) ‘police headquarters’.

 

ageamịu (Aromanian ağami, Megleno-Romanian ağamiia) (adj.) – ignorant, incapable.

Turkish acemi < Arabic ağam ‘Barbarian’ (Şăineanu, II, 12; Cioranescu, 125); cf. Neo-Greek ατζαμής, Bulgarian ağamija.

 

ạger – 1. keen, penetrating; 2. active, industrious.

Latin agilis ‘agile’ (Cipariu, Gram., II, 344; Puşcariu, 37; Candrea-Densusianu, 19; REW, 230).

Turkish  acar (pron. agear) ‘industrious, keen, penetratating’ seems to be a loanword from Romanian.

Derivatives: a ageriagerime.

 

aghiạsmă (variant aiazmă, Aromanian agiazma, Megleno-Romanian ghiasmá) (n., fem.) – holy water.

Medio-Greek αγίασμα ‘id’ (Cioranescu, 129); cf. Albanian ajazmë ‘id’, Bulgarian agiazma ‘id’

Derivatives: a aghesmui ‘to sprinkle with holy water’, aghiazmatar ‘vessel for holy water’.

 

agâmbạ (vb., I) (dial.) – to hunt, to trample.

Latin gamba (Philippide, II, 643) or from Latin *aggambare (REW, 1529; DAR). Both hypotheses are rejected by Cioranescu (131). He considers it of unknown origin, especially because these “etymons” cannot explain forms such as agâmbeală ‘epilepsy’ and agâmbat ‘poor, unhappy person’.

Romanian agâmba seems to derive from PIE *gheubh- ‘to curb, to bend’ (Walde, I, 597; IEW, 450) with the epenthesis of m, a frequent phonological phenomenon in Romanian. Similar forms are found in some other neighboring Indo-European languages; cf. Latvian gubtugubt ‘to bend, to curb’, Lithuaniangeibus ‘weak’, Greek κυφος ‘curbed, bend’ (see gheb). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: agâmbealăagâmbat.

 

agina (vb., I) (reg., Olt.) – to cease, to stop.

It seems to be a compound form a verbal root gin- prefixed with the preposition a. I could not identify any cognate in other Indo-European languages. Unknown  origin.

 

agonisị (Aromanain agunisescu, Megleno-Romanian angunesés) (vb., IV) – 1. to work hard, to toil (obs.); 2. to gain; 3. to save.

Medio-Greek αγονίζομαι ‘to fight’ (Roesler, 563; DAR; Cioranescu, 134).

Derivatives: agonisealăagonisităagonisitor.

 

agrịş (n., masc.) – gooseberry bush (Ribes grossularia), barberry bush (Berberis vulagre).

Hungarian egres ‘gooseberry’ (Gáldi, 82; Cioranescu, 136), itself from MHG agras < Old French aigras < Latin acrus (cf. Cioranescu).

Berneker (2, 5) argues that OCS agres, Czech agrest, Polish agrest are deriving from Italian agresto ‘unripe grapes’. According to Miklosich (Fremdw., 73), Albanaian grestë as well as Serbian grešogrešta derive from Italian as well; cf. Russian agrestagrus ‘agriş’. According to  Vasmer (I, 5) the Russian forms are borrowed from Polish, Ukrainian agrest, which is also borrowed  from Italian agresto.

The forms presented above do not seem to derive from the same source, namely some of them may derive from Italian and others from Romanian. Italian agrestoseems to be cognate with Romnian aguridă ‘wild grapes’ found in Albanian as well. It is obvious that Latin acrus ‘sour’ and Romanian agriş derive from the same root. There are in Romanian other lexical elements deriving from the same root: acriş (dial.) ‘yoghurt’ and măcriş (variant macriş) ‘sorrel’ due to their taste. Hungarian egres is a loanword from Romanian (see acru ‘sour’, aguridă ‘wild grapes’).

Derivatives: agrişă.

 

ạgru (dial.) (Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian agru) (n., neut.) – field.

Latin agrum (acc. of ager „field”) (Puşcariu, 38; Candrea-Densusianu, 21; REW, 276). Latin ager derives from PIE *agro-s (Walde, 1, 22). The root has derivatives in many Indo-European languages: cf. Umbrian ager ‘id’, Sanskrit ajrah ‘id’, Greek αγρός ‘id’, Gothic akrs ‘id’, OHG ackar „id”, NHG Acker ‘id’. The form agru is used only in some dialects, including Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian. The usual form in today’s Daco-Romanian is  ogor (see ogor).

 

agụdă (n., fem.) – mullberry.

OCS *agoda (Hasdeu, 534). The Old Church Slavonic *agoda is not attested, but it was reconstructed from Serbian jagoda ‘wild strawberry’ and therefore the hypothesis cannot be accepted, since one does not know what the origin of Serbian jagoda is. On the other hand, Romanian agudă cannot derive from Serbianjagoda, which would give in Romanian *iagodă.

Romanian agudă derives from the same root as agriş and aguridă (see agrişaguridă), due to their sour taste (see acru).

 

agurạ (vb., I) (obs., dial.) – to predict, to forecast.

Latin a(u)gurare (Densusianu, Rom., 28, 61; Puşcariu, 39; Candrea-Densusianu, 23, REW, 784; DAR; Cioranescu, 139). The word is preserved in western Transylvania, only.

Cioranescu rejects Pascu’s hypothesis (1, 178) that Aromanian ugure ‘prophecy’ is not inherited, but a loanword from Turkish which borrowed it from Neo-Greek γουρί < Latin augurium. Latin origin.

 

agurịdă (variant acrid (obs.), Aromanian aguridă, Megleno-Romanian guridă) (n., fem.) – wild vine, wild grapes.

Medio-Greek αγουρίδα from άγουρος ‘green’ (Miklosich, Fremdw. 73; Cioranescu, 140); cf. Albanian aguridhë ‘id’, Bulgarian agurida ‘id’. The Medio-Greek forms invoked by Miklosich are not attested in this language (cf. Lampe). The variant acrid is a derivative of acru ‘sour’. It must be of Thraco-Illyrian origin, being present in Albanian and Bulgarian as well. It is related to agudă (see acru, agudă).

Derivatives: agurijoară „rose moss” (Portulaca grandifora).

 

ạgust (variants gustgustaragustru, Aromanian avgustu, Megleno-Romanian avgust) (n., masc.) – the month of August.

Vulgar Latin *agustus (Puşcariu, 40; Candrea-Densusianu, 24; REW, 786); cf. Albanian gusht ‘id’. Present day form august is a modern adaptation dating form 19th century.

 

ah (variant aaha) (interj.) – an interjection expressing pain.

The variants  a and aha are expressing surprise or satisfaction. According Cioranescu (142), it is an imitative formation; cf.  Sanskrit aho ‘interjection expressing as surprise or pain’. Both may be associates with PIE *ā ‘exclamation expressing wonder’ (IEW, 1) (see a¹).

 

ai (Aromanian,  Megleno-Romanian al’u, Istro-Romanian ol’u) (dial.) (n., masc.) – garlic.

Latin alium ‘garlic’ (Puşcariu, 47; Candrea-Densusianu; REW, 366; Cioranescu, 145). The root is found in Albanian and Sanskrit as well. cf. Albanian aj ‘id’, Sanskrit alu-halukam ‘root, bulb’.

All these forms derive from PIE *alu-, alō- ‘plant, bitter bulb’ (IEW, 33). Romanian ai is used only in some dialects of Transylvania of Daco-Romanian and in the Balkan dialects.

 

aicị (variant aci, Aromanian aoá, aţia ‘there’) (adv.) – here.

Latin *eccum-hic (Puşcariu, 12; Candrea-Densusianu, 8; REW, 4129). Panromanic. Similar forms are found in other Indo-European languages of different groups; cf. Umbrian essu, Oscan eks-, uk, Lithuanian čia ‘here’, and Sanskrit iha ‘here’. The particle a- is a deictic prefix, as in other Romanian words (see a³, acolo, acel).

Derivatives: acilea ‘id’ (cf. acolea).

 

aịdoma (adv.) – 1. same, identical; 2. real, indeed.

OCS vidomŭ ‘visible’ < OCS videti ‘to see’, which turned in Romanian into an adverb having added a prothetic a  (Cihac, 2, 2; Cioranescu, 149).

The Old Church Slavonic etymon invoked by Cihac is not attested (cf. Djačenko).  On the other hand, this hypothesis cannot explain the initial a. However, similar forms are found in Sanskrit and Lithuanian; cf. Sanskrit aviš ‘open before one’s eyes’, Lithuanian avytis ‘which can be seen’.

Obviously, all these froms are derivatives of the PIE *ụedi- „to see, to perceive” (IEW, 1125) (see vedea ‘to see’).

 

aieptạ (vb., I) – 1. to throw oneself forward; 2. to adjust, to smooth.

Vulgar Latin *aiectare from Latin eiectare ‘to throw’ (Puşcariu, 42; Candrea-Densusianu, 27; Cioranescu, 151). Diculescu (Elementele, 463) is dubious about this hypothesis and, instead he thinks that it derives from Greek ιάκτω ‘to throw’. Diculescu’s hypothesis seems to be more plausible, but the correct Greek form isίάπτω, which according to Boisaque (364), derives from PIE *(ii)-iaqŭ-io. Boisaque considers it of obscure origin, a loanword in ancient Greek, and according to him is cognate to Latin jacio ‘to throw’. It seems that the Greek verb is of Thracian or Illyrian origin, where PIE * turned into a p in these languages. (seecuptor ‘oven’, noapte ‘night’). With the second meaning, it seems to be a different verb all together. It seems to be of Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

aiẹvea (Aromanian aeveanaevea) (adv.) – 1. real, which looks real; 2. truly, indeed.

OCS javiti ‘to show, to present’ (Cihac, 2, 153; Berneker, 34; Cioranescu, 152); cf. OCS ave ‘obvious’ (Berneker, 2, 34) which seems to be a cognate to Romanian aievea.

I have to mention that the etymon invoked by Cihac is not attested (cf. Blagova, Djačenko). Cihac associates it with a a ivi ‘o appear, to show’. On the other hand, Romanian aievea has a cognate in Lithuanian ovijusovitis ‘to appear in a dream’ (see ivi).

 

aiụrea (Aromanian al’urea, Megleno-Romanian l’urea, Istro-Romanian al’ure) (adv.) – 1. elsewhere, somewhere, far away; 2. randomly,  which does not make sense.

Latin aliubi ‘other, another, someone else, something else’ (Creţu, 305; Candrea-Densusianu, 29; Cioranescu, 155); cf. French ailleurs, Old Spanish alubre, Portuguese alhur.  The meaning of Latin aliubi is different and it makes difficult to be the etymon of Romanian aiurea.  Furthermore, it is not the right etymon for the Romance languages forms, but a Vulgar Latin *aliore (REW, 347; Gamillscheg, 21), although Cioranescu (155) disagrees arguing that the etymon of Romanian aiurea is Latin *(vo)let, but his hypothesis does not make any sense.

Similar forms with the same meaning are found in some Geramnic languages; cf. Gothic aljar ‘elesewhere, somewhere’, Old English ellor, Old Norse ellior‘elsewhere’.

  1. Schmidt (1962, 70; cf. Lehmann, 28) argues that the Germanic forms derive from a Proto-Germanic *aljōr, which is (almost) identical to the Vulgar Latinaliorewhich is considered to be the etymon of the Romance forms. In other words, the so-called Vulgar Latin form is rather a Pre-Roman etymon.

Derivatives: a aiuraaiuritaiureală.

 

ajụn (Aromanian agiun „to be hungry”) (n., neut.) – 1. the day before a certain event or before a certain period of time starts; 2. a day of fasting.

Vulgar Latin *aiunare ieiunum ‘fast’ (Meyer, Alb. St., 4, 88; Philippide, 2, 645). Cognates are found in Spanish ayunar, French à jeun < ajeun), as well as Albanian agjenoj ‘to fast’. According to Corominas (1, 428), Spanish ayuno derives from a Vulgar Latin *iaiunus.

Walde-Hoffmann (1, 674) shows that Latin ieiunum derives from PIE *edi-unos ‘deprived of food’, or from *ieiu-s, *iaiu- ‘hunger’; cf. skt. adjunah „vorace, lacom”. On the other hand, Glare (821) considers Latin ieiunum of unknown origin.

Derivatives: a ajunaajunare.

 

ajụnge (Aromanian agiung, Megleno-Romanian jung) (vb., III) – 1. to arrive; 2. catch up, to reach (a destination).

Latin adiungere ‘to join, to glue’ (Puşcariu, 50; Candrea-Densusianu, 33; Cioranescu, 158). Panromanic.

Derivatives: ajungereajuns.

 

ajutạ (Aromanian agiut, Megleno-Romanian jut, Istro-Romanian (a)jut) (vb. I) – to help.

Latin adiutare ‘to help’ (Puşcariu, 51; Candrea-Densusianu, 33; REW, 171; Cioranescu, 160); cf. Italian ajutare, Provensal ajudar, Spanish ayudar.

Derivatives: ajutorajutătorajutarea ajutoraajutorare.

 

al (art., masc.) – genitival article.

It is a compound form from the preposition a and the definite article l < (ă)l.  It is used in genitive case. It is not the same with ălăla ‘that’ as all Romanian dictionaries and grammars maintain (see ălălaacela).

Derivatives: aaialealor.

 

alạc (n., masc.) – wheat variety which grows in mountainous regions.

Hungarian alakor ‘id’ (Cihac, 2, 475; Densusianu, Rom. 33, 273; Gáldi, 140). Cihac believes that Hungarian alakor derives from Latin alica ‘id’, but he gives no other details. Cioranescu (166) considers it of obscure origin. Corominas (1, 75) derives Spanish alaga from Latin *alaca; cf. Albanian lakër ‘greenstuff’. Romanian alac is a cognate of Spanish alaga, but they do not derive from the same Vulgar Latin form.

According to Walde (1, 29), Latin alica derives from Greek άλιξ (gen. άλικος), with the same meaning. One reason that these authors do not consider Romanianalac to be of Latin origin is the fact that intervocalic l did not undergo  rhotacism, but there are other exceptions to this rule (see bălan). Since the form is present in Greek, it may have existed in Thraco-Dacian as well.  Despite of what Romanian linguists were saying Edelspacher (8) shows that Hungarian alakor derives from Romanain alac.

 

alại (Aromanian alae) (n., neut.) – pump, show.

Turkish alay (Şăineanu, 2, 4; Roesler, 561, Cioranescu, 16); cf. Neo-Greek  αλάι, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian alay.

 

alạmă (Aromanian malamă „gold”) (n., fem.)  – 1. brass; 2. brass objects.

Neo-Greek μαλάμα ‘gold’ (Cioranescu, 171); cf. Albanian malamë ‘gold’. The elision of initial m in Romanian is due the association of this form with aramă‘copper’.

Derivatives: a alămialămaralămărie.

 

alandạla (adv.) – 1. wrong, upside down; 2. in disorder, mell-pell.

Neo-Greek άλλαντάλλον ‘one in the place of the other’ (Philippine, Principii, 146; DAR; Gáldi, Les mots, 142; Cioranescu, 173).

 

alặturi (variant alăturea) (adv.) – beside, next to.

Latin *ad latera (REW, 4934; Cioranescu, 175).

Latin *latera has no attestation, only lateralis < latus ‘wide’. There are no similar forms in other Romance languages. Therefore, we should consider it as a compound from a(d) ‘at’ lături (plural of latură) (see latură).

Derivatives: a alăturaa înlătura.

 

alb (Aromanian albu, Megleno-Romanian alb) (adj.) – white.

Latin albus ‘white’ (Puşcariu, 55; Candrea-Densusianu, 36; REW, 331; Cioranescu, 176). The root is attested also in some Dacian and Thracian place-names such as Apulum (see Apulum) and personal names such as Albos (Proklou) (Samsaris, in Noi, Tracii, 24, 1991). It it found in a number of other Indo-European languages: cf. Hittite alpa-as ‘clouds’, ali ‘white’, Greek αλφός ‘id’, Umbrian alfu ‘id’, Welsh elfydd ‘id’, OHG albiz, Gallo-Roman  Albion ‘Brittania’, Middle Irish Albbu ‘Brittania’, Scottish Alba ‘Scotland’, Lithuanian alvas ‘white’, all from  PIE *albho- ‘white’ (IEW, 30). We may consider it of Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives:  a albialbeaţăalbiturăalbeţealbiciosalbinosalbineţalbişora înălbiînălbeală etc.

 

albạstru (Aromanian albastru ‘grey’) (adj.) – blue.

Latin *albaster albus ‘white’ (Puşcariu, 56; Candrea-Densusianu, 37; REW, 319; Cioranescu, 177). The hypothesis cannot be accepted since there is no attestation of the putative Latin etymon and there no cognates in other Romance languages. Romanina albastru is a derivative of alb which probably meant initially ‘grey’ as in today’s Aromanian (see alb).

Derivatives: a albăstrialbăstreaalbăstrealăalbăstriua înălbăstri etc.

 

ạlbie – (n., fem.)  – 1. river bed, channel ; 2. (washing) trough, tub.

Latin *alvea (Puşcariu, 58; Candrea-Densusianu, 43; REW, 320; Cioranescu, 178). Latin alveus ‘washing tub’ > Spanish alveo which is a masculine noun as in Latin, while Romanian albie is of feminine gender. There are no feminine cognates in other Romance languages. However, there are cognates in Scandinavian and Baltic languages; cf. Old Norse alda ‘wave’, Norwegian (dial.) olda ‘trough’, Old English aldotaldaht ‘trough, tub, vat’, Lithuanain aldjia ‘river bed’, which are of feminine gender as Romanian albie. All derive from  from PIE *aldh- ‘trough, tub’ (IEW, 31). Romanian albie is closer, as meaning and form, to Lithuanianaldjia; cf. Latin alveus ‘hollow, basket, bed’.

In Thraco-Dacian, the (aspirated or non-aspirated) PIE voiced dental *d(h), preceded by a lateral (lr) turned into b as in vorbă ‘word’ (cf. Latin verbum) (seevorbă). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: albiuţăalbioară.

 

albịnă (Aromanian alg’ină) (n., fem.) – bee (Ophris cornuta).

Latin *alvina < alveus ‘hollow, basket, bed’ (Puşcariu, 59; Candrea-Densusianu, 48; REW, 389; Cioranescu, 179). The hypothesis cannot be accepted. First of all, the meaning of Romanian albină has nothing to do with Latin alveus or *alvina. On the other hand, Latin *alvina has no attestation and there are no other Romance forms to derive from this Vulgar Latin etymon.  According to these authors, Romanian albie derives from the same Latin alveus (see albie) which does not make any sense. Latin apis ‘bee’ is cognate of Romanian albină, but this Romanian noun cannot derive from Latin apis. They both, along with many other Indo-European languages forms, derive from PIE *bhei- ‘bee”, with the formants  nkt (IEW, 116). The root is preserved in many Indo-European languages; cf. OHG bini „bee”, Albanian bletë „id”, Lithuanian bité „id”, Old Prussian bité „id’, Old Irish bech ‘id’, OCS bičela ‘id’.

On the other hand, Walde (1, 57) associates Latin apis with Gallo-Roman amella < *ampella, Greek έμπις ‘mosquito’, Farsi ang ‘bee’ and Basque abia‘mosquito, a biting insect’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: albinaralbinărel ‘a bird’, albinăriealbinărit.

 

alcătuị (vb., IV) – to put together.

Hungarian alkot-ni ‘to create, to procreate’ (Cihac, 2, 475; Cioranescu, 183). The putative Hungarian etymon has a different meaning and therefore, it cannot be accepted.

On the other hand, Romanian alcătui seems to have a cognate in Sanskrit šlokšlokate ‘to compose, to be composed’. From the Romanian and Sanskrit forms one may reconstruct a PIE *olk-at- ‘to put together, to gather’. It seems to be of Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alcătuirealcătuialăalcătuitor.

 

ạlde (art.)  a indefinite article meaning ‘of the kind of, people such as’.

It is a compound form from the demonstrative pronoun ăl and the preposition de (cf. Cioranescu, 163) (see ăl and de).

 

aleạn (adj., neut.) – 1. longing, yearning; 2. nostalgia, melancholy; 3. suffering, sorrow, grief.

OCS alinŭ ‘treacherous, perfidious’ (Cihac, II, 2) or Hungarian ellén ‘against’ (Cioranescu, 1869).

None of these two hypotheses can be accepted. OCS alinŭ is an adjecitve and it has a different meaning, while Hungarian ellén is a preposition while Romanianalean is a noun, but Cioranescu disregards this detail.

I think that Romanian alean may be associated with PIE *leno- ‘weak, soft’; cf. Greek  λιναμαι ‘to avoid, to shun’, Gothic af-linnan ‘to empty, to leave’, Gothicbi-linnan ‘to yield, to finish’, Old Irish linna ‘to slow down’, Middle Irish lian ‘soft’.There are other related forms in Romanan (cf. alinaalinta, lin). All derive from the same Proto-Indo-European root.

 

alẹge (Aromanian alegaleadzire (alepşualeaptă)) (vb., III) – 1. to choose; 2. to select, to separate.

Latin *allegere (Puşcariu, 60; REW, 364). This Vulgar Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no cognates in other Romance languages deriving from this putative etymon. Obviously, Romanian alege is related to Latin eligere  ‘choose, to select’, but their relationship is not clear.

Romanian  alege and Latin eligere derive from  PIE *leg-, leg’- ‘to gather’; cf. Latin lego, -ere ‘to gather, to select’, Greek  λέγω ‘to gather, to count, to read’, Albanian mb-leth ‘to gather’ (see culege ‘to gather’).

Derivatives: alegerealegător.

 

alẹi (variant alelei, Aromanian alai) (interj.) – an exclamation (before an invocation) expressing anger, enthusiasm or regret.

Suidas says that eleleu was ‘a war cry’ (cf. Cioranescu, 189); cf. Bulgarian olele.

PIE *alā ‘interjection used to attract someone’s attention’ (IEW, 29); cf. Sanskrit alala, Greek αλαλάαλαλαί ‘hoorah’, Greek ελελεΰ ‘war cry, interjection expressing pain’, Old English hallohalloo ‘hello’, Lithuanian aluoti ‘to cry hallo’. Thrace-Dacian origin.

 

alergạ (Aromanian alag, Megleno-Romanian lag) (vb., I) – 1. run, to rush; 2. to be busy.

Latin *allargare from largus (Philippide, II, 539; Puşcariu, 61; Candrea-Densusianu, 952; REW, 352). Instead, Cioranescu (192) considers it of uncertain origin.  The Latin etymon has no attestation and largus ‘wide’ has a totally different meaning. There no cognates in the other Romanace languages.

On the other hand, Albanian ljargon ‘to leave, to separate’ and largo ‘to move’ seem to be cognates of Romanian alerga.

The forms in both Romanian and Albanian seem to derive from PIE *leg- ‘to run (about water),  to leak, to melt’ (IEW, 659); cf. Old Irish legaim (I, sg.) ‘to leak, to melt’, Old Icelandic lekr ‘leak’, MHG lecken ‘spring, river’, Armenaina lič  ‘swamp’, Lithuanian lekti ‘to  run, to run away’.

One may see that in the Romanian Balkan dialects  the verb does not have  the lateral r, as in most other Indo-European languages. Therefore, the original form was *alagare, *alegare,  not *allargare. Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: alergarealergătoralergăturăalergat.

 

alică (variant alic, Aromanian hăliche) (n., fem.)  – pellet.

Neo-Greek  χαλίκι ‘pebble’ (DAR; Cioranescu, 198); cf. Albanian halič.

 

alifịe (Aromanian alfie) (n., fem.) – ointment, salve, unguent.

Neo-Greek αλουφή ‘id’ (Roesler, 564; Cioranescu, 200).

 

alinạ (vb., I) – 1. to temper, to mitigate, to allievate; 2. to appease, to soothe.

Latin *allenare (Puşcariu, 62; Candrea-Densusianu, 989; Rosetti, 1, 79).

The Latin etymon has no attestation, while Sardinian allenare ‘to teach, to instrucrt, to train’ is not a cognate since it has a totally different meaning. It is related tolin and alinta, all from PIE *leno- ‘weak, soft’ (IEW, 667) (see alintalin). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alinarealinatalinătoralinătură.

 

alintạ (vb., I)  – 1. to caress, to fondle; 2. to spoil; 3. to frolic.

Latin *allentare < lenis ‘soft, smooth, gentle, calm’ (Candrea-Densusianu, 990) or from Latin lentus ‘slow, flexible’ (Puşcariu, 64; REW, 257). Italian allentare ‘to loosen, to relax’ and Romanian alinta do not seem to derive from a common Vulgar Latin etymon. This verb is related to a alina from the same PIE root *leno- ‘weak, soft’ (IEW, 667) (see alinalinlenelinişte). Thabo-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alintalintarealintăturăalintător.

 

alişverịş (Aromanian alişverişe, Megleno-Romanian alişvăroş) (obs.) (n., neut.) – commerce, trade, business.

Turkish alişveriş < alıs ‘gift’ and verıs ‘to take’ (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, 2, 17; Cioranescu, 209); cf. Neo-Greek αλισβερίσι, Albanian alishverish, Bulgarianališveriš.

 

alt (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian altu, Istro-Romanian ot) (pron.) – other.

Latin *altru < alter ‘other’ (Puşcariu, 67; Candrea-Densusianu., 48; REW, 382). Panromanic; cf. Sardianian altu ‘other’. The root is found in other Indo-European languages; cf. Oscan alloaltram, Greek άλλος ‘other’, Welsh aile ‘id’, Breton all ‘id’, Lithuanian autra (adv.) ‘secondly’, Armenian ail ‘other’. All these forms derive PIE *alio-s ‘other’ (IEW, 25; Walde, 1, 30).

 

altạr (Aromanian altaraltare) (n., neut.) – altar.

Latin *altarium  ‘altar’ (Puşcariu, 68; Candrea-Densusianu, 49; REW, 381); Panromanic; cf. Albanian liter ‘id’. From OCS olŭtarĭ (Miklosich, SlawElem., 33; Cihac, 2, 227; Gáldi, 148); cf. Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Russian, Czech, Hungarian oltar. The word entered in Proto-Romanian along with other terms regarding Christian belief. From Romanian it was borrowed into Old Church Slavonic and other neighboring languages.

 

altịţă (n., fem.) – stream of ornaments on a traditional shirt or blouse.

Serbo-Croatian latica (Cihac, 2, 24; Hasdeu, Etym.) or Latin altitia ‘height’ (Cioranescu, 219); cf. Italian altezza ‘height’. Serbo-Croatian latice displays the metathesis of the lateral, a phonological feature specific to Slavic languages. If Romanian would have borrowed it from Serbo-Croatian would have kept it as such. Therefore, Serbo-Croatian borrowed it from Romanian, not the other way around.

Latin altitia was rarely used. According to Cioranescu, the term is justifed by the fact that such an embroideries are found on the upper part of the sleeve of the traditional Romanian shirts. The term seems to be a derivative of Romanian from the root alt- as in înalt ‘high, tall’ (see înalt).

 

ạltfel (adv.) – 1. in a different way; 2. otherwise.

It is a compound form from alt ‘other’ and fel ‘kind, type’ (see altfel).

 

altmịnteri (variants altmintereaaltmintrelea etc) (adv.) – otherwise, in a different manner.

Latin * alia  mente (Cipariu, Gramm., II, 40; Hasdeu, Etym.; Puşcariu, 44; Puşcariu, Dacor., 3, 397; Candrea-Densusianu, 1133; Rosetti, 1, 114; Cioranescu, 220). The term is rather a derivative of Romanian from alt and the verbal root mint- as in minte ‘mind’ and a aminti ‘to remember’ (see  altminte).

 

altoị (vb., IV) – 1. to graft;  2. to beat, to hit (fig.).

Hungarian oltvány ‘to graft’ (Gáldi, 83; Cioranescu, 221).

Derivatives: a altoialtoialăport-altoi.

 

aluạt (variants aloţelalăuţel, Aromanian aluataloat, Megleno-Romanian luţol, Istro-Romanian aluot) (n., neut.)  – dough.

Latin *allevatum < allevare ‘to raise’ (Puşcariu, 69; Candrea-Densusianu, 1008; REW, 360).

The putative Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no cognates in any Romance languages. On the other hand, the Megleno-Romanian luţol cannot be explained by Latin *allevatum. Romanain aluat seems to derive from PIE *lei- ‘soft, sticky’ (IEW, 662), with a formant in -t, *lei-t, prefixed with the preposition *ad; cf. Lithuanian lyteti ‘to touch, to spread’, Latvian làitêt ‘to spread’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

alụnă (Aromanian alună, Istro-Romanian alure) (n., fem.)  – hazelnut (Corylus avellana).

Lat. *abellona < abellana ‘hazelnut’ (Puşcariu, 70; Candrea-Densusianu, 51; REW, 17); cf. Italian avellana, Spanish avellana, Catalan vellana, Provensal aulona.

They say that Latin abellana derives from the place-name Abella (Italian Avella). Walde-Hoffmann (1, 3) shows that Old Latin form was (nuxaulena where intervocalic u turned into b in Classical Latin. This fact may shed some light on the fact that Latin intervocalic b (v) has ‘disappeared’ in Romanian (see cal‘horse’). On the other hand, I have to mention that b (v) were not elided when they were present in Proto-Indo-European (see  abur ‘steam’, avea ‘to have’ etc.).

Derivatives: alun, alunişaluniţăalunelalunar.

 

alunecạ (variant a luneca, Aromanian alunic) (vb., I) – to slide, to slip.

Latin *lubricare ‘to lubricate’ < lubricus ‘slippery, deceitful’ (Philippide, Principii, 98; Puşcariu, 997; Candrea-Densusianu, 1021; Pascu, 1, 38; REW, 5132; Cioranescu, 4944) or Latin *lunicare < luna ‘moon’ (Meyer, Alb. St., 4, 36). None of these two etymologies can be accepted. In the first case, the derivation is not possible, in the second the meaning of the putative etymon has nothing to do with the Romanian verb aluneca which derives from PIE *lei- ‘slippery, greasy, to slide’, slimno ‘slippery’ (IEW, 662), prefixed with the preposition *ad. Cognates are found in many different Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit lindu‘slippery’, Latin  lino ‘to soil’, Old Irish slemun ‘soft, slippery’, Lithuanian lendu, lišti ‘to slide’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alunecarealunecosalunecuşalunecatalunecătură.

 

alungạ (vb., I) – to chase (away).

Latin *allongare (Puşcariu, 71; Candrea-Densusianu, 1024; REW, 1853; Cioranescu, 234). The Latin etymon does not exist and there are not any cognates in other Romanace languages.

Romanian alunga seems to be cognate with Latin abigo ‘to chase’, as well as same as Greek απάγω ‘to chase’ and Sanskrit apa-ajati ‘to chase’, which are compound forms from PIE *apo- ‘behind, after’ (IEW, 53) and PIE *ago- ‘to drive’ (IEW, 4), therefore a *apo-ago > *apago. The evolution of Romanian  aalunga is not clear, but it seems it is the result of a contamination with lung ‘long’ or other unknown word. The whole evolution is not clear. It seems to be of Thrace-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alungarealungător.

 

amạn (interj.) (obs.) – mercy!, woe!

Turkish aman ‘id’ < Arab āman ‘id’ (Şăineanu, II, 18; Cioranescu, 228); cf. Albanian, Bulgarian aman ‘id’. French aman and Spanish amán are loanwords from Arabic (cf. Cioranescu).

 

amanẹt (Aromanian amânete, Megleno-Romanian amanet) (n., neut.) – warranty, pawn.

Turkish amanet < emanet ‘id’ (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, II, 19; Cioranescu, 230); cf. Neo-Greek αμανέτι, Albanian, Bulgarian, Serbian amanet ‘id’.

Derivative: a amaneta.

 

amạr (Aromanian amar, Megleno-Romanian (an)mar, Istro-Romanian amår) (adj.) – 1. bitter; 2. trouble, suffering.

Latin amarus ‘bitter’ (Puşcariu, 73; Candrea-Densusianu, 53; REW, 406; Cioranescu, 233); cf. Italian amaro, French amer, Spanish amargo, Vegliote amnar as well as Middle Irish amar ‘trouble, suffering’ which may be a loanword from Latin. It seems to be of Latin origin.

Derivatives: a amărîamărâciuneamărât etc.

 

amăgị (Aromanian amaie „witchcraft”) (vb., IV) – 1. to cheat; 2. to tempt.

Greek μαγεύω ‘to bewitch, to enchant’ (Hasdeu, Etym.; Diculescu, Elem., 474; Rosetti, 2, 66; Cioranescu, 227).

Boisacq (597) shows that μάγοι ‘magi’ as well as μαγεύω derive from Old Persian maguš. The Magi were the caste of priests in ancient Media (cf. Herodotus, 1,101).

The initial a of the Romanian verb cannot be explained if it would be a loanword from Greek. However, it has a cognate in the  Sardinian (Logudorian dialect)ammajare ‘to bewitch’. There is no Latin equivalent or any other Romance language. In Romanian and Sardinian are of pre-Roman origin, from the same root as the Old Persian maguš is coming from.

Derivatives: amăgireamăgealăamăgitoramăgita dezamăgidezamăgire.

 

amănụnt (n., neut.) – detail.

A derivative of mărunt ‘small’, prefixed with a (cf. Cioranescu, 232) (see mărunt).

Derivatives: a amănunţiamănunţitamănunţime.

 

amânạ (Aromanian amân) (vb., I) – 1. to postpone, to delay; 2. to adjourn.

Latin *ad mane (Puşcariu, 79; REW, 2924; Cioranescu, 249). The putative Latin etymon is not a verb, but an adverb which eventually turned into a verb and second, there are  no cogantes in any of the Romance languages. However, there is a cognate in Albanian mënoj ‘to postpone, to delay’, overlooked by all these authors. Both of them derive from PIE *men- ‘to remain, to stay, to stop, to cease’ (IEW, 729) (see rămâne). Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: amânareamânat.

 

amândọi (Aromanian, Istro-Romanian amândoi) (pron.) – both.

Latin ambo duo > *ambo dui (Puşcariu, 80; REW, 411; Cioranescu, 250). There are cognates in a few Romance languages: cf. Romansch amenduos, Provensalamdui.

Romanian amândoi is rather  a derivative of Romanian language, especially the numaral doi cannot derive from Latin duo, but from a similar Pre-Roman form (see doi ‘two’).

 

ameninţạ (vb., I) – to threaten.

Latin *amminaciare < minaciae ‘threat’ (Puşcariu, 77; REW, 5584; Cioranescu, 242). There are cognates in a number of Romance languages; cf. Italianminacciare ‘to threate’, Provensal, Catalan menassar ‘id’, French menacer ‘id’, Spanish amenazar ‘id’, as well as Albanian mënirë ‘to threaten’ which does not seem to be of Latin origin.

De Mauro-Mancini (1250) argues that Latin *minaciare is the etymon of Italian minacciare, while Spanish amenazar, according to Corominas, derives from Latin  *minacia. In other words, Vulgar Latin offers a number of different forms which, ultimately, can be associated with  PIE *men- ‘to step on, to press, to hit, to push’ (IEW, 726).

Derivatives: ameninţareameninţatameninţător.

 

amestecạ (Aromanian ameastic) (vb, I) – 1. to mix; 2. to mix up; 3. to blend in.

Latin *ammixticare < mixtus ‘mixture’ (Candrea-Densusianu, 1086; Pascu, I, 115; REW, 5617; Cioranescu, 244). Latin mixtus is a derivative of misceo ‘to mix’. In fact, Romanian amesteca should be considered a derivative of mesteca ‘to chew’, prefixed with a, which is a cognate of Latin masticare ‘to chew’ (seemesteca). There are cognates in most Indo-European groups; cf. Sanskrit mekşayati ‘to mix, to shake’, Avestan mišraminašti ‘to mix’, Greek μείξω ‘id’, Middle Irish mescaid  ‘id’, Welsh mysgu ‘id’, OHG miskan ‘id’, Lithuanian miešiu ‘id’, Lithuanian mištoke ‘churn, mixer’, Old Bulgarian mešomešiti ‘to mix’, all from PIE *mei-k- ‘to mix’ (IEW, 714), with the formants *meisko- şi meikro-, in various Indo-European languages.

Dirvatives: amestecatamestecător, amestecătură.

 

ameţị (vb, IV) – 1. to become dizzy; 2. to be a little drunk or dizzy.

Latin *ammatiare < *mattus ( (Puşcariu, ZRPh., 32, 717) or Latin *ammateare < *mattea ‘stick, club’ (Cioranescu, 245). The Latin “etymons” do not exist and there are no cognates in Romance languages. On the other hand, the meaning of the putative Latin etymons are different. Cioranescu associates ameţi with Italianammazzare ‘to kill’ and Italian  matto ‘mad, crazy’, but the Italian forms have  also, different meanings. However, this Romanian verb is a cognate of Greekμετύω ‘to be drunk, to be dizzy’, as well as  μέθη ‘drunkness’. Chantraine (676) associates these Greek forms with μέδυ ‘mead, wine’; cf. Romanian mied‘mead’.

All these forms derive from PIE *medhu ‘honey, mead’ (IEW (707) (see miedbezmeticdezmetici). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: ameţealăameţireameţitameţitor.

 

amiạză (variants amiazinămiazănămiezi, Aromanian n’eadză-dzuuă) (n., fem.) – noon, middle of the day.

Latin *medi-die (Cioranescu, 246); The Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no real cognates in Romance languages. However, there are similar forms in both Latin and some of the the Romance languages; cf. Latin meridies > Italian meriggio.

Latin *medi-die would have given in Romanian *miez-zi or miază-zi, but miază-zi ‘south’ has a totally different meaning. On the other hand, the initial a is specific to Romanian. Romanian amiază is an compound form from miez ‘middle, inner core, essence’ < PIE *medhi ‘middle’ (IEW, 706) prefixed by preposition *ad. PIE *d(h) turned into z, in Thraco-Dacian when followed by a front vowel (see Introduction). The same transformation is attested in some Thraco-Illyrian names from the last centuries of the 1st millenium BC, such Saba-ziosMenzanaMieza (see miez).

 

amịn (interj.) – amen.

Medio-Greek αμήν (Cioranescu, 248); cf. OCS aminŭ.

 

amịnte (Aromanian aminte) (n., fem.) – remembering, recollection.

It is a compound form from a and minte ‘mind’  < *ad-minte. There are no similar forms in Latin or Romnace languages. However, it has a close cognate in Lithuanian  atminti ‘to remember, memory’; cf. Old Prussian mintimai ‘to lie’ (I, pl.).

All these forms derive from PIE *men- ‘to think’, with nominal forms *menti, *mentu, *mņti, *mņto ‘mind, thinking’ (IEW, 726). Pre-Romanic origin (seeminte, minţi).

Derivatives: a(-şiaminti ‘to remember, to remind’, amintire ‘memory’.

 

amnạr (Aromanian mânear ‘flint steel’)  (n., neut.) – flint steel, tinder box.

Latin manuarius ‘manual’ < manus ‘hand’ (Puşcariu, 8; REW, 5332) or Latin *ignarium (Philippide, Principii, 46). Densusianu (Rom., 33, 274) thinks that it is a derivative of mână ‘hand’.

Philippide’s hypothesis is partially correct, although Latin *ignarium has no attestation and there are not any cognates in the Romance languages. In fact *ignarium would give in Romanian *imnar, not amnar. It rather derives from an older *ognari-s, itself from PIE *egnis, *ognis ‘fire’ (IEW, 293); cf. Sanskritagni ‘fire’, Latin ignis ‘id’, Lithuanian ugnis „id”, etc. T. Papahagi (696) thinks that Aromanian mânear derives from Latin manualis. In fact, it represents a contamination with mână. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivative: amnăruş.

 

amorţị (Aromanian amurţăscu, Megleno-Romanian amurţoş) (vb., IV) – 1. to become numb; 2. to hibernate.

Latin *ammortire (Puşcariu, 83; Candrea-Densusianu, 1178; REW, 186; Meyer, Alb. St., 4, 86); The Latin etymon has no attestation, although there are some similar forms in Romance languages, but they have different meanings; cf. Italian ammortire ‘to weaken, to break’, Provensal, French amortir. This verb seems to be a derivative of Romanian from mort ‘dead’, prefixed with a (see muri ‘to die’).

Derivatives: amorţireamorţitamorţeală.

 

amụrg (Aromanian amurg) (n., neut.)  – sunset, crepuscule.

A derivative of murg ‘dark bay, dark bay horse’ prefixed by a. Thraco-Illyrian origin (see murg).

Derivatives: a amurgiamurgeală.

 

amvọn (Aromanian amvun) (n., neut.) – pulpit.

Medio-Greek άμβων (Cioranescu, 259).

 

amuţị (Aromanian amuţăscu) (vb., IV) – to become mute, to become silent.

Latin *ammutire (Puşcariu, 86; Candrea-Densusianu, 1191; Cioranescu, 257). There are no similar forms in other Romance languages. It is derivative of Romanian from mut ‘mute’ (see mut).

Derivatives: amuţireamuţeală.

 

an (Aromanian an, Istro-Romanian on) (n., masc.) – year.

Latin annus ‘year’ (Puşcariu, 88; Candrea-Densusianu, 58; REW, 487; Cioranescu, 260). Panromanic.

Latin annus derives from PIE *en ‘year’ (IEW, 314); cf. Greek ένος’id’, Gothic athnan (dat. pl.), Oscan akenei < *at-nei, Lithuanian per-n-ai ‘last year’, Latvianperns ‘id’ (cf. Latin per-ennis).

 

anạfură (variant nafură, Aromanian anafură, Megleno-Romanian nafără) (n., fem.) – wafer, Eucharist bread.

Medio-Greek αναφορά (Murnu, 4; Cioranescu, 263).

 

anahorẹt (n., masc.) – hermit.

Medio-Greek αναχωρίτης < αναχώρειν „to distance oneself” (Cioranescu, 273); cf. French anachorète.

Derivative: anahoretic.

 

anạnghie (Aromanian ananghie) (n., fem.) – hardship, predicament.

Neo-Greek  ανάγκη (Gáldi, 146; Cioranescu, 264).

 

anạpoda (Aromanian anapuδa) – 1. crosspatched, crossgrained; 2. upside down.

Neo-Greek ανάποδα (Roesler, 564, Gáldi, 146; Cioranescu, 265).

 

anasậna (obs.) – by force, under compulsion.

Turkish anasını ‘mater eius’ (DAR; Cioranescu, 267). It is used only  in the expression cu anasâna ‘by force’.

 

anasọn (n., masc.) – anise (Pimpinella anisum).

Turkish anason < Medio-Greek άνισον (Roesler, 584; Şăineanu, II, 20; Cioranescu, 268); cf. Bulgarian, Serbian anason.

 

anatẹmă (Aromanian anatima, Megleno-Romanian natima) (n., fem.) – anathema.

Medio-Greek ανάθημα (Murnu, 4; Cioranescu, 270).

Derivatives: a anatemizaanatemizare.

 

angarạ (Aromanian angărie) (obs.) (n., fem.) – 1. gratuitous service, compulsory service (hist.); 2. taxes, financial obligations.

Medio-Greek αγγαρεία (Meyer, 12; Cioranescu, 281); cf. Albanian ngherij, Bulgarian angarija, Polish angarya, Turkish angarya, Italian angheria, Frenchangarie, Spanish angaria.

 

andreạ (variants undreaîndrea) (n., fem.) – knitting needle.

Cioranescu (9060) thinks that it is variant of undrea, a derivative of îndrea ‘December’  from Andreas ‘Saint Andrew’ (Puşcariu, 832; Tiktin; Cioranescu, 4397), but it has the stress on the first syllable, while îndrea ‘knitting needle’ has the stress on the last syllable, but Cioranesci ignore these details; cf. AromanianAndreluşuAndreu ‘December’. Romanian andrea and undrea have nothing to do with  îndrea as the name of Saint Andrew, respectively. According to Reichenkron, Romanian  andrea derives from PIE *ardh- ‘stake’ (IEW, 63), a hypothesis rejected by Poghirc  (“O nouă teorie…?”, Limba română, 15, 5, 1967) and he argues that it derives from PIE *andher- ‘sharp tip, rod’ (IEW, 41) (see undrea). He seems to be correct. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

anghinạră (variant anghinare) (n., fem.) – artichoke.

Perhaps from Neo-Greek αγκινάρα (Gáldi, 148; Cioranescu, 285); cf. Albanian hinarë, Bulgarian anginar, Turkish enginar.

 

aninạ (Aromanian alin ‘to go up, to climb’) (vb., I) – to hang, to hang up.

Latin *anninare de la *ninna ‘swing’ (Puşcariu, 89; REW, 5817; Cioranescu, 291); cf. Provensal nina ‘to sleep’ (cf. Cioranescu). Neither Latin *anninare, nor *ninna are attested which were reconstructed from Provensal nina, a cognate of  Romanian nani ‘sleep’ (in children’s talk). On the other hand, these authors ignored Aromanian alin which contradicts their hypothesis.

Romanian anina seems to derive from PIE *ar- ‘to divide, to hang, to go up’ (IEW, 61); cf. Hittite arnumi ‘to bring’, Greek αρνυμαι ‘to go up, to reach out, to touch’, Armenian arnum ‘to take’. From this root derives Romanian atârna ‘to hang (up)’ as well. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: aninareaninătoare.

 

anọst (Aromanian anustu) (adj.) – colorless, insipid, boring.

Neo-Greek άνοστος (Gáldi, Les mots, 148; Cioranescu, 293).

 

antặrţ (adv.) (obs.) – two years ago.

Latin anno tertio (DAR; Cioranescu, 295) (see an, terţiu).

 

anterịu (Aromanian antiriu, Megleno-Romanian antiriia) (obs.) (n., neut.)  – 1. a pompous robe of the aristocracy; 2. surplice.

Turkish antari < Arabic antari (Şăineanu, II20; Meyer, 11; Cioranescu, 298); cf. Neo-Greek αντερίον, Albanian anderi, Bulgarian, Serbian anterija.

 

aolẹu (variant aoleo) (interj.) – ah!, oh dear!, oh my!

It is a contamiantion between au ‘ouch’ and văleu. Romanian văleu can be traced to PIE *ŭai-lo-s, a derivative of PIE *ŭai ‘woe’ (IEW (1110) (see vaivăleu). Pre-Roman origin.

 

apă (Aromanian apă, Megleno-Romanian apăapu, Istro-Romanian ape) (n., fem.) – 1. water; 2. body of water.

Latin aqŭa ‘water’ (Puşcariu, 91; Candrea-Densusianu, 62; REW, 570; Cioranescu, 316); cf. Italian aqua, Spanish agua, Portuguese agoa, Sardinian abba.

Latin aqua derives from PIE *akʷa ‘water, stream’ (IEW, 23); cf. Gothic ahwa,  Sanskrit ap-, apa, Avestan ap, Hittite ŭappe, OHG affa. There are many body of water names and place names in ancient Thraco-Illyrian, Italic and Celtic areas formed with the root  -apa (see Vinereanu, 2002, 52); cf. Zaldapa ‘a place in Scythia Minor’ (today’s Dobrogea region, Romania), Salapia ‘a city in Apulia’. In Gaul and Brittania; Geld-apaArn-apaLen-apaOl-epaMan-apiaAppa,Apava. In Pannonia, Apeva (cf. Holder, vol. 1). In Greece: Απια, Ινωπ, Απιδον ‘locality in Arcadia’ (Steph. Byz.), Απιδανος ‘locality in Tessalia’, Αναπος ‘river in Acarnania’ (Tucydides, 2, 82), as well as in Sicily (Tucydides, 6, 96, 3; 7, 78, 3; Diodor din Sicilia, 15, 13, 5, Tit. Liv. 24, 36, 2) Apsus ‘river in southern Illyria’ (see Krahe, ZONF, 20, 1931), Apila ‘small river in eastern Macedonia’, Colapis ‘river in southern Pannonia’, today Kulpa (see Strabon, 4, 207, 7, 314), in Dio Cassius (49, 37) Colapius, as well as tribe name Colapiani (Pliniu, 3, 147), the Pannonian tribe of Sirapilli (Plinius, 3, 147), as well as Μεσσαπιον όρος‘mountains in Beotia and Thracia’ and finally Messapion and Messapi.

I mention that Walde-Pokorny (1) reconstructs also PIE *ab- ‘water, body of water’ as well as PIE *ap- (IEW, 29), although Romanian apă may derive from PIE *aqʷa since in Thraco-Dacian and Romanian PIE * turned consistantly into a p when it was followed by a back vowel (see Introduction). Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: aparapăraieapătos, apos, apşoară, etc.

 

apărạ (Aromanian apăr, Istro-Romanian opăr) (vb., I) – to protect, to defend.

Latin apparare ‘to be ready, to prepare for’  < *ad-parare (Puşcariu, 93; Candrea-Densusianu, 63; REW, 534; Cioranescu, 318). There are similar Romance forms; cf. Italian apparare, Provensal apara, Spanish aparar which have the same meaning as in Latin. Romanian apăra is semantically incompatible with  Latinapparare and the other Romance forms, except for Calabrian  apparari ‘to put in a safe place’. Albanian mbroj ‘to protect, to defend’  is a cognate to this Romanian verb. They seem to derive from  a IE *pari > *pari-et ‘all around’ (cf. Walde; 2, 254) < PIE *per (IEW, 810); cf. Hittite pi-ir ‘house’, as well  as Thracian -para ‘city, fortress’ (see para¹, perete ‘wall’). Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: apărareapărătorapărătoareapărătură.

 

apăreạ (vb., II) – 1. to appear, to become visible; 2. to come out, to be published.

It is a derivative of părea ‘to seem’ (cf. Cioranescu, 320) prefixed with a or from Latin appārēre; cf. French apparaître ‘id’ (see părea).

Derivatives: aparentaparenţăapariţie.

 

apăsạ (vb., I) – 1. to press (hard), to push; 2 to stress; 3. to oppress.

Latin *appensare < pensare ‘to weigh’ (Philippide, Principii, 21; Puşcariu, 94; Candrea-Densusianu, 1349; REW, 544; Cioranescu, 324); cf. Spanish pesar, French peser. In Latin pensare, the nasal is an infix, since it is missing in other Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit a-piš ‘to press, to press hard’, Albanianpish ‘weight’, Albanian pesho ‘to weigh’, Welsh pwyso ‘to weigh’, pwysan ‘weigh’, Breton pouez ‘weight’,  poueza ‘to weigh’.

We may reconstruct a PIE *pes- ‘weight, to weigh, to press’ (see păs). It seems to be of Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: apăsareapăsatapăsător.

 

aplecạ (variant pleca, Aromanian aplecaplic ‘to suckle (a baby animal)’, Megleno-Romanian plec) (vb., I) – 1. to incline, to bend, to bow; 2. to subjugate; 3. to suckle (a baby animal).

Latin applicare ‘to affix, to attach, to steer’ (Puşcariu, 97; Pascu, I, 35; REW, 548; Cioranescu, 332); cf. Catalan aplegar, Spanish allegar, Portuguese achegar. Th meaning of the latin etymon is different.

In fact, it is a variant of pleca. Romanian plecaapleca should be associated with Latin plico ‘to bend, to pack’ from PIE *plek’- ‘to bend, a împleti’ (IEW, 834). Latin applico is a derivative plico, it was used till the end of the Republic (1st century, BC)  (cf. Glare, 152), afterwards it became obsolete. In other words, about 150 years before Romans set foot in Dacia.  I have to mention that derivatives of this Latin verb may be looked for only in the Iberian Peninsula, probably because the Iberian Peninsula was conquered in the 2nd century BC.

From apleca (pleca) there are a few derivatives such as plecăciune ‘(low) bow’ and plecătoare  ‘milking sheep’  > Hungarian pleketor ‘id’ as well as Ukrainianplekati ‘to suckle’. These forms should not be associated with  pleca ‘to go, to leave’ as most linguists do. It has a totally different origin (see pleca).

Derivatives: (a)plecăciuneaplecătură, (a)plecătoare „oaie cu miel”.

 

apocalịps (variant apocalipsă) – the biblical Revelation.

Medio-Greek αποκάλυψις (Cioranescu, 333) from Greek αποκαλύπτειν ‘to unveil’ < απο-, καλύπτειν ‘to cover, to hide’; cf. French apocalypse.

Derivatives: apocaliptic.

 

apọi (Aromanian apoiapoea, Megleno-Romanian napoinăpoipoia, Istro-Romanian napoi) (adv.) – then, afterwards.

Latin ad post (Puşcariu, 98; Candrea-Densusianu, 1423; REW, 195; Cioranescu, 335) which would give *apost in Romanian, not  apoi; cf. Italian poi ‘id’.

Romanian apoi should be associated to PIE *apo- ‘behind, back’ (IEW, 53); cf.  Sanskrit apo ‘id’, Greek άπω ‘id’, Hittite appa ‘behind, after, again’, Albanianpr-apë ‘behind, again’ (see înapoi ‘back, behind’). It seems to be of Traco-Illyrian origin.

 

apoplexịe (n., fem.) – stroke.

Neo-Greek αποπληξία ‘id’ (Cioranescu, 337) from Greek αποπλέσειν ‘to hit, to throw down’; cf. French apoplexie (since 18th century).

Derivative: apoplectic.

 

apọstol (n., masc.) – a disciple of Christ, apostle.

Medio-Greek απόστολος „envoy” (Murnu, 6; Cioranescu, 342), from αποστέλλειν „to send (someone)”.

Derivatives: apostolat, apostolicapostolicescapostoliceşteapostolie.

 

apostrọf (n., neut.) – apostrophy.

Greek απόστροφος (Gáldi, Les mots, 151) < αποστρέφειν „to give back” < στρέφειν „to return”; cf. French apostrophe (since 17th century; cf. Gáldi).

Derivatives: apostrofă „reprimand”, a apostrofa „to reprimand”.

 

apotẹcă (variants poticăaptecă) (dial., Trans.) (n., fem.) – pharmacy.

NHG Apotheke „farmacy” (Cioranescu, 6707) from Latin apotheca < Greek αποθήκη.

Derivatives: apotecarpotecăraş (variant poticarăş) „pharmacist”.

 

ạprig (adj.) – 1. fiery, ardent, impetuos; 2. harsh, severe; 3. greedy.

Latin apricus ‘exposed to sun’ (Hasdeu, Etym.; Cihac, 1, 24; Cioranescu, 347). Puşcariu (99) as well as REW (581) reject this hypothesis considering it of unknown origin. Authors of DAR derive it from Greek άρπαξ stingy, greedy’ which is a cognate of Romanian aprig, but not its etymon. There are cognates in a number of other Indo-European languages; cf. Gothic (faihufriks ‘avaricious, greedy’, Old Icelandic ferkr ‘greedy’, OHG freh ‘stingy’, Old English froec ‘greedy bold’, Polish pragnać ‘stingy, greedy’, all from PIE *preg- ‘greedy, harsh, vehement’ (IEW, 845). Again, in Romanian, the Proto-Indo-European root is prefix by a (ad) as in many other cases. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

aprịlie (n., masc.) – April.

Medio-Greek Απρίλιος (Cioranescu, 348); cf. OCS Aprili. It is a parallel form to prier which is much older (see prier).

 

aprịnde (Aromanian aprindu, Megleno-Romanian  prind,  Istro-Romanian aprindu) (vb., III) – 1. to kindle, to light; 2. to ignite, to set on fire; 3. to switch on; 4. to blush; 4. to be enthusiastic.

Latin *apprendere apprehendere ‘to understand, to catch’ (Şăineanu, Semasiol., 181; Puşcariu, 100; Candrea-Densusianu, 1448; REW, 554; Cioranescu, 349). The western Romance languages  kept the Latin meaning; cf. Italian apprendere ‘to learn’, French apprendre ‘id’, Spanish  apprender ‘id’.

This verb has a totally different meaning and it is not a real cognate of the western Romance forms. Therefore, it should be considered a derivative of prinde ‘to catch’, prefixed with a (ad) (see prinde).

Derivatives: aprindere, aprinzător.

 

aproạpe (Aromanian aproapea, Megleno-Romanian proapi, Istro-Romanian (a)prope) (adv.) – 1. close by, not far; 2. almost.

Latin ad prope (Puşcariu, 101; Candrea-Densusianu, 65; REW, 197; Cioranescu, 350). Latin prope < *proque (cf. Latin proximus).

Latin prope is a loanword from Osco-Umbrian where PIE *kʷe > pe, a phonological feature found in Thraco-Illyrian as well. The verb a (seapropia seem to be internal derivative of Romanian, since Latin appropiare is attested only in the Middle Ages to the ecclesiastic authors.

Derivatives: a apropiaapropiereapropiat.

 

aprọd (n., masc.) (obs.) – 1. young boyar (aristocrat) serving at the Court of the Romanian princes in the Middle Ages; 2. bailiff.

Hungarian apród ‘page’ < apró ‘small’ (Cihac, 2, 476; Cioranescu, 352).

 

apucạ (Aromanian apuc) (vb., I) – 1. to grab, to seize, to catch; 2. a pune mâna în grabă pe ceva; 3. to have known; 3. to begin, to start.

Latin occupare ‘to seize, to occupy, to attack’ (Cihac,1, 14) was rejected by Meyer-Lübke (Dacor., 4, 642; REW, 776). Latin aucupor ‘to go birdcatching, to pursue, to watch for’ (Burlă, St. Fil., 1880;  Puşcariu (103); REW, 776; Rosetti 1, 162) which is not better then the previous one, both phonologically and semantically.

Romanian apuca is a cognate of Latin apiscor ‘to reach for, to aquire’, but the derivation from apiscor is not possible. Both verbs derive from PIE *ap- ‘to grab, to catch’ (IEW, 50); cf. Hittite eipmi ‘to take, Sanskrit apnoti ‘to arrive at, to win’, Avestan apayeiti ‘to arrive at’, Greek απτω ‘to gather, to bind’, Tocharian Aoppaççi ‘skillfull, clever, ingenious’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: apucareapucatapucătorapucătură.

 

Ạpullum – a city in ancient Dacia, today Alba-Iulia

It is the Latin form of a Dacian *Aplo sau *Apl which seems to derive from PIE *albho- ‘white’ (IEW, 30); cf. Gallo-Roman Albion ‘Brittania’, Middle IrishAlbbu ‘Brittania’ (see alb).

 

apụne (Aromanian apun) (vb., III) – 1. to set (down), to go down; 2. to fade, to decline.

Latin apponere „to put near, to apply, to add” (Şăineanu, Semasiol., 181, Puşcariu, Candrea-Densusianu, 1462; REW, 551; Cioranescu, 356). The putative Latin etymon has a different meaning. However, Spanish ponerse el sol „to set down (about sun)” has the same meaning and similar form, but they cannot be derived from the same Vulgar Latin etymon, therefore Romanian apune seems to be an internal derivative of Romanian from pune „to put”, prefixed with a (see pune).

Derivatives: apunereapusapusean.

 

arạ (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian ar, Istro-Romanian oru) (vb., I) – to plough.

Latin arare ‘to plough’ (Puşcariu, 105; Candrea-Densusianu, 67; REW, 508; Cioranescu, 357); cf. Italian arare ‘id’, Spanish, Portuguese arar ‘id’.

The root is found in most Indo-European language groups; cf. Greek αρόω ‘to plough’, Middle Irish airim ‘to plough, to work’, Welsh arddu ‘to plough’, Lithuanian ariu ‘id’, Lithuanian arimas ‘ploughed field’, Gothic arjan ‘to plough’, OHG erran ‘id’, OCS orjoorati ‘id’,  Albabian arë ‘cultivated field’, arar‘ploughman’, Armenian araur ‘plough’, Lithuanian arklas ‘id’, Tocharian are ‘id’. All from PIE *ar(ə) ‘to plough’ (IEW, 62);

Derivatives: arăturăarătorarabil.

 

arababụră (variant harababură) (n., fem.) – disorder, scandal.

Turkish anababulla > Neo-Greek αλλαμπάμπολλα (DAR; Cioranescu, 358). However, similar forms are found in a series of European languages: cf. Medieval Latin baburra „madness, insanity”, Medio-Greek βαβοϋρα „id”, Italian (Venetian dialect) alabala „confusely”. All these forms seem to be of imitative origin.

 

arạc (variants harachărac, Aromanian harac) (n., masc.) – prop, stake.

Neo-Greek χαράκι ‘prop’ (Roesler, 586; Cioranescu, 360); cf. Turkish herek, Bulgarian harak.

 

arạmă (Aromanian aramă) (n., fem.) – copper.

Vulgar Latin *aramen < aeramen (Diez, Gramm., 2, 5; Puşcariu, 107; Candrea-Densusianu, 61; Rosetti, 2, 65; Cioranescu, 363); cf. Italian rame ‘copper’, Old French arain, Old Provensal, Catalan aram, Old Spanish arambre, as well as Albanian rem, Albanian aramë ‘copper’.

The root is found in many other Indo-European and Afrasian languages. The Eneolithic begun in eastern Anatolia in the 7th millennium, BC and spread into Balkan region and Europe. Orel (1995, 55) reconstructs a AA root *ariw ‘metal’; cf. Akkadian werueru ‘copper’. It seems to be of Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: a arămiarămirearămioarăarămăriearămiu etc.

 

arạp (variant harap, Aromanian arap, Megleno-Romanian rap) (n., masc.) – 1. Arab; 2. a dark complexion person.

Turkish arab ‘Arab’ (Şăineanu, II, 22; Cioranescu, 365); cf. Neo-Greek αράπες, Albanian arap, Bulgarian harap.

Derivatives: arăpescarăpimearăpoaicăarăpilă.

 

arat (Aromanian aratru) – plough (in Muscel region, only).

Latin aratrum ‘plough’ (Puşcariu, Dacor., 8, 324). From the same root derives Aromanian arător ‘ploughman’ which seems to derive from Latin aratorius (cf. Papahagi, 133). A Daco-Romanian dialectal form artor is attested in northern Moldova which cannot really derive from Latin aratrum. All these forms derive form. PIE *arətrom ‘plough’ (IEW, 62) (see ara).

 

arătạ (Aromanian arăt, Istro-Romanian arotu) (vb., I)  – 1. to show, to indicate 2. to present; 3. to look like; 4. to explain.

Latin *ad reputare (Hasdeu, 1557) or Latin *arrectare <  rectus ‘right, straight’ (Cihac, 1, 82). Latin *arratare (Candrea, Rom., 31, 301), but later Candrea (GS, 3, 423) renounced his hypothesis. Finally, from Latin ratare ‘to count, to determine’ (Cioranescu, 369), a derivative of  ratus ‘valid’, but Cioranescu’s hypothesis does not explain the presence of the initial a. None of these hypotheses can be accepted. All these “etymons” either  have no attestation or are not appropriate from a semantic or phonological point of view. However, there are cognates in other Indo-European languages; cf. Welsh arddangosfa ‘to show, to present’, arddangos‘show’, Irish no-radim ‘sage, wise man’,  Gothic rodian, NHG reden ‘to speak, to talk’, all from PIE *ar(e), arə- ‘to unite, to match, to talk, to show, to calculate’ (IEW, 55), with the formant dh: *aredh (IEW, 59). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: arătarearătosarătătorarătătură.

 

ạrbore (Aromanian arbure, Megleno-Romanian arbur, Istro-Romanian årbure) (n., masc.) – tree.

Latin arbor ‘tree’ (Puşcariu, 112; Candrea-Densusianu, 74; REW, 606); cf. Vegliote juarbul ‘tree’, Italian albero ‘id’, Corsican arburu, French, Catalan arbre, Spanish arbol, as well as Albanian arbur and OHG albar (cf. Ernout-Meillet, 56).

Walde-Hoffmann (1, 62) shows that Latin arbor derives from PIE *ardho-s ‘tree’. I have o to mention that PIE *d(h), after a lateral (r, l) turned into a b, a phenomenon found not only in Latin, but in Thraco-Dacian as well (see albievorbă). Romanian arbore is of Latin origin, but it is less usual than copac ‘tree’ (see copac).

Derivatives: arborescentarborescenţăarboricultură (modern loanwords), arboros.

 

arc (variant (dial.) harc, Aromanian arcu, Megleno-Romanian arc) (n., neut.) –  bow.

Latin arcus ‘bow’ (Puşcariu, 113; Candrea-Densusianu, 76; Cioranescu); cf. Spanish, Portuguese arco, Provensal, French arc, as well as Albanian ark (hark). The root is found in other Indo-European languages; cf. Umbrian arçlataf ‘arculatas (kind of pretzels)’, Gothic arhazna ‘bow’, Old English earh ‘arrow’, Greekάρκευθος ‘juniper’, Albanian arkitë ‘osier willow’ (see răchită), all from PIE *arqu- ‘bent, to bend’ (IEW, 67) or PIE *ħherk(h)ʷ/ *ħhark(h)ʷ(Bomhard&Kerns, 384). The Proto-Indo-European root reconstructed by Bomhard&Kerns exhibits initial laryngeals which seems to be preserved in some (conservative) Romanian and Albanian dialects.

Derivatives: arcaşarcuiarcuitarcuire.

 

arcạci (obs.) (n., masc.) – a fence separating sheep.

Turkish arkaç ‘id’ (Hasdeu, Etym.,1492). It seems to be of Indo-European origin, namely from PIE *arqu- ‘bent, to bend’ (IEW, 63) (see arcarcan).

 

arcạn (n., neut.) – lasso, shipknot rope.

Tatar arkan ‘lasso’ (Miklosich, Fremdw., 175; Cioranescu); cf. Turkish, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian arkan. Miklosich (Wander., 12) argues that Polish borrowed it from Romanian, but it seems that all these languages borrowed it from Romanian. The word seems to derive from the same PIE root *arqu- ‘bent, to bend’ (IEW, 67) (see arc).

 

ạrde (Aromanian ardu, Megleno-Romanian ard, Istro-Romanian årdu) (vb., III) – to burn, to be hot.

Latin *ardĕre (instead of ardēre) (Puşcariu, 114; Candrea-Densusianu, 78; REW, 620; Cioranescu, 381); cf. Vegliote ardar, Italian ardere, Provensal, Old Frenchardre.

Latin ardēre derives from PIE *as-, azd-, azg(h)- ‘a arde’ (IEW, 68). The root is found in many other Indo-European languages. It means ‘altar’ in Italic languages and ‘ash’ in most other languages.

Derivatives: arderearsurăardei etc.

 

Ardeạl  – Transylvania (in Romanian).

It was associated with Hungarian erdely ‘forest’ > Hungarian Erdely ‘Transylvania’.

However, there are about 40 other place-names and river names all over Romania  similar to it. Here are some of them: ArdelArdaloaia, ArdeleiArdelion,ArdeliaArdeoani, ArdotaArdeu, Arduzăl etc. (cf. N. Drăganu, Românii…, 1933), but all these forms cannot derive from Hungarian erdely, since there was no language contacts between the Romanians living in these regions and Hungarians. There is no doubt that the association between Ardeal and Hungarian erdely is due to folk etymology. Therefore, the Magyars associated the Romanian name of this province with a word already existing in their language.

Since the region is a plateau it seems to derive from PIE *er(ə)d „tall, to wake up, to raise” (IEW, 339); cf. Avestan ərədva ‘tall’, latin arduus ‘tall abrupt’, GaulishArduenna (silva), Old Irish ard ‘height’, Irish aird ‘region, territory’, Albanian rit ‘to wake up. From the root derives the Romanian verb a radical ‘to lift, to raise’ (see ridica).

Derivatives: ardeleanardeleancăardelenescardeleneşte.

 

arẹndă (arindă (Trans., Olt.), orândă (Mold.) (n., fem.) – lease, rent.

Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian arenda ‘id’ (Cihac, 2, 3; Hasdeu, Etym.,1540); cf. Hungarian arenda ‘id’. However, the word is found in a few Romance languages as well, such as Sardinian arrendare ‘to lease, to rent’, Spanish arrendar ‘id’. Therefore, Cioranescu (383) believes that the Romanian word derives from a Late Latin *arenda. Furthermore, there are similar forms in other Romance languages, such as Old French rente (12th century), Provensalrenta (renda), Spanish renta, Potuguese renda, Italian rendita, cognates to Latin reddoreddere ‘to give back, to return’, redditio ‘giving back’. The Latin verb derives from an Old Latin form *rendo, *rendere. In other words, these Romance forms cannot derive directly from Latin reddoreddere. They come from some other languages and dialects from the Roman Empire. They all these derive from PIE *rent- ‘wealth, property’ (IEW, 865); cf. Sanskrit ratnam ‘posessions, proprety’, Irish ret ‘possessions’. The Slavic languages and Hungarian  borrowed it from Romanian. Pre-Roman origin.

Derivatives: a arendaarendarearendaşarendăşiţăarendăşiearendăşesc.

 

arẹte (dial.) (Aromanian areteareati, Megleno-Romanian retiareati, Istro-Romanian arete) (n., masc.)  – ram.

Latin aries, -etem ‘ram’ (Puşcariu, 115; Candrea-Densusianu, 81; REW, 645; Cioranescu, 386). Latin arietem would have been *ariete in Romanian. The phonetics was discussed by Rosetti (1, 51).

 

argăsị (Aromanian arγăsescuarγăsire) (vb., III) – to tan (a hide or skin).

Neo-Greek αργάζω ‘to tan’ (aorist of αργασα) (DAR; Cioranescu, 388); cf. Bulgarian argasvam, Albanian argoshë ‘skin irritation’. It is not attested in ancient Greek, therefore Neo-Greek borrowed it from Aromanian. On the other hand, Albanian form is inherited. The verb derives from PIE *areq- ‘to protect, to defend, to seal, to close’ (IEW, 65); cf. Greek αρκέω ‘to protect’, Latin arceo ‘to seal, to close’. Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: argăsireargăsitargăsealăargăsitor.

 

argạt (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian argat) (n., masc.) – servant, helper.

Neo-Greek αργάτης < Greek εργάτης ‘worker’ (Roesler, 564; Murnu, 6); cf. Albanian argat, Turkish irgat, Bulgarian argatin, Serbo-Croatian argat. Neo-Greek origin.

Derivatives: argăţela argăţiargăţescargăţime.

 

argeạ (obs.) (n., fem.) – 1. niche, recess (in the wall); 2. an underground room of the traditional houses.

Dacian *argilla (Hasdeu, Col. lui Traian, 1873, 232; Etym. 1577-9; Densusianu, Filologie, 449; Hlr., 38; GS, 7, 86; Philippide, Principii, 33, 148; Iordan, Dift. 58). Hasdeu associates it with Greek άργιλλα ‘underground house’ and Old Macedonian άργελλα ‘bathroom’.

Jokl (IF, 44, 13) and Puşcariu (Lr., 237) consider that the Old Macedonian is a loanword from Cimmerian άργιλλα; cf. Albanian ragëlia. According to the ancient Greek and Byzantine authors Cimmerians were a Geto-Dacian tribe who lived on the northern shore of the Black Sea. Brâncuş (VALR, 30) and I.I. Russu (Elem., 133) associate it with PIE *areg- ‘to close’ (IEW, 64); cf. Sanskrit argala-h ‘bolt’.

 

Ạrgeş – river in southern Romania.

It is attested to many ancient and Byzantine authors over the centuries since Herodotus, under slightly different forms: Ordessos (Herodotus), Ordesos (Plinius), where g is spelled as d, since ancient Greek and Latin did not have this sound. Later on, we have ArgesiosArgisios (Porphyrogenitus, beginning of 10th century AD). The sufix -sio-s explain the sound ş (sh) of the modern form, since s followed by i gave ş in Romanian (see şapteşarpe), a phenomenon found in other Romanian river names (see ArieşCrişMureşTimiş).

This river name seems to derive from PIE *ar(e)g’-, arg’- ‘white, bright’ (IEW, 64) (see argint). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: Curtea-de-Argeşargeşeanargeşeancă.

 

argịnt (Aromanian arzintrăzint, Istro-Romanian arzint) (n., masc.) – 1. silver; 2. money (pl.).

Latin argentum ‘silver’ (Puşcariu, 116; Candrea-Densusianu, 82; REW, 640; Cioranescu, 393).

The root is attested in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit árjunah ‘white, bright, pure’, Greek άργυρος ‘silver’, Oscan arageto- ‘id’, Albanianargjent ‘id’, Irish argat ‘silver, money’, Old Welsh argnt ‘silver’, Middle Cornish argans ‘id’, Breton archant ’id’, Armenian arcath ‘id’.

The Pictish personal name Argento-coxos ‘silver leg (or hip)’ (cf. Vendryes), indicates that the Celtic forms are not of Latin origin. All these forms derive from PIE *ar(e)g’-, arg’- ‘white, bright’ (IEW, 64). It seems be of Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: argint-viu ‘quick silver, mercury’, a argintaargintareargintatargintiuargintarargintărieargintosargintiu.

 

arhạnghel (Aromanian arhanghil, Megleno-Romanian ranghilă) (n., masc.) – archangel.

Medio-Greek αρχάγγελος (Cioranescu, 396) from άρχος ‘leader’ < άρχειν ‘to be the first’; cf. OCS archangelŭ.

 

arhimandrịt (n., masc.) – archimandrite, the leader of an Orthodox monastery.

Medio-Greek αρχιμανδρίτης < (Murnu, 7; Cioranescu, 399) from άρχος ‘leader’ and μάνδρα ‘monastery’.

Derivatives: arhimandrie ‘the title of archimandrite’.

 

arịci (Aromanian ariciuariţ, Megleno-Romanian ariţ) (n., masc.) – hedgehog.

Latin ericius hedgehog’ (Diez, 1, 349; Puşcariu, 118; Candrea-Densusianu, 85; Cioranescu, 404); cf. Italian riccio ‘id’,  Sardinian rizzu ‘id’, Spanish erizo, as well as Albanian irik (urik) ‘id’.

Derivatives: aricioaicăariceală.

 

ạrie (Aromanian ariear, Megleno-Romanian arγie) (n., fem.) – threshing floor (ground).

Latin area (Puşcariu, 119; Candrea-Densusianu, 86; REW, 626; Cioranescu, 406). Pan-romanic; cf. Albanian arë ‘id’.

 

arịn (variants anin, arine) (n., masc.) – alder tree (Alnus glutinosa).

Latin *alninus < alnus ‘alder tree’ (Hasdeu, Etym.,1205; Densusianu, Hlr., 119; Puşcariu, 90;  REW, 375a; Cioranescu, 290). The putative Vulgar Latin etymon is not attested and it seems that ther are no other Romance derivatives from this “etymon”. On the other hand, the root is found in many Indo-European languages; cf. Gothic *alisa, OHG ellira ‘alder tree’, Old English alor ‘id’, Lithuanian, Latvian alksnis ‘id’,  Old Prussian alskande ‘id’, Gaulish *alisa (attested in the place name Alisia, where Julius Caesar defeated the Gaulish forces led by Vercingetorix, in 52 BC). From all these forms one may reconstruct a PIE *alisno-s ‘alder tree’. In Romanian (and Thraco-Dacian) intervocalic l turned into a r, while s was dropped, therefore arin. The variant anin is a variant of arin. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: arinişarinişte.

 

arịnă (dial.) (Aromanian arină) (n., masc.) – sand.

Latin arēna ‘sand’ (Puşcariu, 119; Candrea-Densusianu; 87; REW, 630; Philippide, II, 632; Cioranescu, 408). Panromanic; cf. Albanian rerë ‘id’. The form in found in western Romania, Macedonia and Transnistria (outside Romania’s borders).

Derivatives: ariniş ‘desert’, arinos ‘sandy’.

 

arịpă (variant areapă, Aromanian arpă, Megleno-Romanian iaripăreapă) (n., fem.) – wing.

Cihac (2, 476) thinks that it derives from Hungarian rop ‘flight, wing’, but the derivation is not possible, while Roesler believes it sas borrowed from Greek ρική, but the word does not seem to exist in Greek. On the other hand, κ could not turn into a p in Romanian. Later there were proposed several Latin etymologies, also unacceptable. From Latin alipes < ali pes ‘wing foot’ (Densusianu, Hlr., 30), a hypothesis rejected by Puşcariu (123), who says that only the first part could be admitted (cf. Latin ala ‘wing’). The authors of DAR propose Latin alapa ‘slap’ much less acceptable, but accepted by REW (319). One may propose a non-attested Vulgar Latin *alepa, but apparently there are no cognates in any Romance language except maybe for Italian (Calabrian dialect) alapa ‘the blade of a water meal wheel’.  On the other hand, there is no doubt that Romanian aripă is a cognate of Latin ala, but the derivation is not possible. In other words, Romanian aripăderives from an older *alepa >  areapă > aripă. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: aripioarăa înaripaînaripat.

 

armạş (n., masc.) – a third rank aristocrat in older Romanian hierarchy, commander of the artillery.

A derivative of  armă ‘weapon’. From Romanian it was borrowed into Hungarian ármas; cf. Albanian armë ‘weapon’ (see armă).

Derivatives: armăşelarmăşoaiearmăşie etc.

 

ạrmă (Aromanian armă, Istro-Romanian orme) (n., fem.) – weapon.

Latin arma ‘weaponry, weapon’ (REW, 651); cf. Irish arm, considered to be a loan-word from Latin according to Vendryes (A-89). The term is also found in Homeric Greek άρμα, -τος ‘wagon, car’, but especially ‘war chariot’. The noun armosa ‘army’ is found on the Sinaia inscriptions several times meaning ‘army’ which is a cognate of the Greek form. In Mycenian a-mo/ar-mo  means wheel. Beekes shows that the Greek noun derives from a PIE *h2er- ‘join’ (GED, I, 133).

Derivatives: a armaarmarearmatăarmamenta înarmaînarmare etc.

 

armăsạr (variant harmăsar) (n., masc.) – stallion.

Latin equus admissarius ‘stallion’ (Schuchardt, Vokal., 1, 141; Philippide, 2, 361; Puşcariu, 126; Candrea-Densusianu, 93; REW, 177; Cioranescu, 414). One cannot explain the r in the first syllable which is also present, in the Albanian cognate harmeshuar (harmeshor) ‘stallion’, which has been elided in Sardinianammesardzu ‘id’.  From Romanian it was borrowed into Ukranian harmasar (Miklosich, Wander., 16; Candrea, Elemente, 404).

On the other hand,, the dialectal form armig  (harmig) ‘id’ is considered by Hasdeu (EtymMagnum…) to be of Couman, Pecheneg or Avar origin (cf. Chagataikargamaq ‘thoroughbred horse’) influenced by admissarius. The initial h in Albanian and some Romanian dialects cannot be explained as well. Romanianarmăsar (harmăsar) may be a contamination of Latin admissarius with armig which seems to be of Thraco-Illyrian origin.

 

arnịci (n., neut.)  dyed cotton thread or fabric.

Cf. Serbo-Croatian jarenica, Bulgarian arnič, Hungarian arninci. Cioranescu (420) considers it of unknown origin, but he also states that it might be a defromation of urşinic ‘velvet’. From Romanian it was borowed into Bulgarian arnič (Capidan, Raporturile, 220) and Hungarian arninc (Candrea, Elemente, 406). Unknown origin.

 

arọmă (Aromanian arumă) (n., fem.) – aroma, fragrance, perfume.

Medio-Greek άρωμα (Roesler, 664; Murnu, 7; Cioranescu, 421).

Derivatives: aromaticaromealăaromatiza.

 

arpacạş (n., neut.) – pearl barley.

Hungarian árpa kása, árpa ‘barley’ and kása ‘groats’ (DAR); cf. Turkish arpa ‘orz’, Slovakian arpakaša.

 

arpagịc (n., neut.) – 1. chive, scallion; 2. bulb for planting.

Turkish arpacik (sogani) ‘(onion like) small barley’ (Cihac, II, 544); cf. Serbian arpagĭk.

 

arsụră (n., fem.) – 1. burn, scald; 2. heartburn.

Latin arsura (Puşcariu, 130, REW; 682, Cioranescu, 431); cf. Italian, Provensal, Catalan arsura, Spanish asura.

It is attested in Medieval Latin arsura ‘fire, incendiu’ (cf. Niermeyer, 82). De Mauro-Mancini (151) from which derives Italian arsura ‘drought’ from Medieval Latin arsura(m). There was no contacts between Romanian and Medieval Latin. One should consider  arsură a derivative of Romanian from a arde ‘to burn’ (seearde).

 

arşịc (Aromanian aşic) (n., neut.) (obs.) – knucklebone, dib.

Turkish aşik „anklebone, knucklebone” (Şăineanu, 2, 26; Cioranescu, 429); cf. Albanian a(s)ik, Bulgarian asik, Serbo-Croatian arsik.

 

ạrşiţă (n., fem.) – 1. intense/scorching heat, dog days; 2. fever.

Latin *arsicia (Puşcariu, 129; Candrea-Densusianu, 80; Cioranescu, 430); cf. Italian arsiccio ‘burned place’. The meaning of Romanian and Italian forms are different. It seems that it is a derivative of Romanian language from arde ‘to burn’, as it is the case of Italian (see arde).

 

arţạg (variant harţag) (n., neut.) – quarrelsomeness, peevishness.

Hungarian harcag (Philippide, Principii, 150; Cioranescu, 433). I could not verify Hungarian harcag, although there is a Hungarian harc ‘fight, conflict’, which is the same with Romanian harţă ‘skirmish, quarrel’, a hărţui ‘to bother, to harrass’ (ignored by Philippide), similar to French harasser (cf. English to harass). The noun arţag is a derivative of  harţă (see harţă) which is of imitative origin (cf. hâr). The Hungarian form seems to be a loanword from Romanian. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivative: arţăgos.

 

arţạr (n., masc.) – mapple tree (Acer platanoides).

Latin acer ‘mapple tree’ (Puşcariu, 131; REW, 91). The derivation is not possible. Instead, Cioranescu (434) proposes a Vulgar Latin *arcearius, but one cannot accept his hypothesis since there are not other cognates in the Romance languages deriving from this etymon. G. Ivănescu shows that it derives from PIE *akar(n)os or rather *alkarnos (arkarnos) (Thraco-Dacica, 1976; cf. ILR); cf. NHG Ahorn ‘mapple tree’, as well as German northern dialects Alhorn,Elhorn and Sanskrit akráh „id”.

He argues that arţar cannot derive from Latin acer or *arciarum, *arcearius because they would give *aciar or *arciar, but not arţar. Therefore, he considers it to be of Thraco-Dacian origin. Besides, the lateral r, in front of ţ cannot be explained. Furthermore, PIE k’ folowed by a front vowel turned into a ț as in other Romanian words of Thraco-Dacian origin (see ţep).

 

aruncạ (Aromanian arucarucare, Megleno-Romanian runcrucari) (vb., I) – 1. to throw (away), to hurl; 2. to drop, to drop off.

Latin runcare ‘to weed’ (Cihac, 1, 17; Pascu, 1, 62; REW, 2908; Cioranescu, 443); cf. Italian arroncare ‘to weed’. The meaning of arunca is somehow closer to Latin ruo ‘to fall, to rush, to hurry; to hurl down’, but ruo cannot be the etymon of Romanian arunca.  However, there are cognates in a few other Indo-European languages; cf. Latvian ruket ‘to snatch, to uproot’, Irish urchar ‘to throw’, Sanskrit luñcati ‘to uproot, to peel off’, all from PIE *reu-, *reuk- ‘to uproot, to throw away’ (IEW, 869). Thrace-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: aruncarearuncataruncătoraruncătură.

 

arvụnă (Aromanian arvună) (n., fem.) – earnest (money).

Greek αρραβών > Latin arr(h)a(bo) (Cioranescu, 446); cf. Italian arra, French arrhes, Spanish arras, Neo-Greek αρραβώνας.

Phonologically, Romanian arvună cannot derive from Latin. It is closer to the Greek forms, but it can be only a loanword from Medio-Greek or Neo-Greek, when β was pronounced v. According to Boisacq (82), Greek αρραβών is a loanword from Hebrew erābōn ‘pawn, deposit’. From Romanian it was borrowed into Ukrainian arawona (Miklosich, Wander., 12).

Derivatives: a arvuniarvunire.

 

ascẹt (variants aschitaschet (obs.))  (n., masc.) – 1. hermit, anchorite; 2. recluse.

Medio-Greek ασκητής (Cioranescu, 455) from Greek ασκέσις ‘exercise’ < Greek ασκεϊν ‘to practice, to exercise’, attested since 17th century.

Derivatives: asceticascetismasceză.

 

ascultạ (Aromanian ascultu, Megleno-Romanian acult, Istro-Romanian ascutu) (vb., I) – 1. to listen to; 2. to obey; 3. to believe; 4. to examine.

Vulgar Latin *ascultare < auscultare ‘to listen carefully’ (Puşcariu, 138; Candrea-Densusianu, 95; REW, 802; Cioranescu, 457); cf. Italian ascoltare, Old Frenchascouter, Old Spanish ascuchar.

Latin auscultare derives from PIE *kleu-, klu- ‘to hear’, kleu-to-m ‘hearing’, kluti, klutos ‘famous’ (IEW, 605) found in most Indo-European language groups. Latin auscultare seems to be the result of a contamination with ausis ‘ear’ with an older *kluto > *culto, *cultare. Latin origin.

Derivatives: ascultareascultatascultător etc.

 

ascụnde (Aromanian ascundu, Megleo-Romanian şcund, Istro-Romanian ascundu) – 1. to hide, to conceal; 2. to cover, to mask.

Latin abscondere ‘to conceal’ (Puşcariu, 139; Candrea-Densusianu, 97; REW, 41); cf. Italian ascondere ‘id’, Old Provensal, Old French esconder, Catalanascoudir, Old Spanish ascouder.

Latin abscondere is a derivative of condo, -ere ‘to construct, to hide’ from PIE *(s)keu-, (s)keud- ‘to cover, to hide’ (IEW, 952). The root is found also in Germanic languages; cf. Old English hydan ‘to hide’, Old Icelandic skaud ‘sheath’.

Derivatives: ascundereascunsascunzişascunzătoareascunzător.

 

ascuţị (vb., IV) – 1. to sharpen; 2. to grind, to whet.

Latin acutus ‘sharp’ (Cihac, 1, 18) or Latin *excotire < cos, cotem ‘flintstone’ (Puşcariu, 140; Densusianu, Rom. 33, 274; REW, 2275; Cioranescu, 459); cf. Italianaguzzare ‘to sharpen’, Spanish aguzar, Old Porvensal, Portuguese agusar, French aiguisser < Latin *acutiare ‘to sharpen’, as well as Old Irish acuit ‘sharp’. Corominas (1, 80) considers that the Spanish form derives from a Vulgar Latin *acutiare > acutus. De Mauro-Mancini (51) also believes that Italian aguzzarederives from the same Vulgar Latin etymon *acutiare.

Romanian ascuţi does not derive from *excotire, but from something similar *acutiare, which is the etymon of the other Romance forms. There is a cognate in  Albanian cokas ‘to sharpen’. It belongs to a larger Romanian word family which includes cuţit ‘knife’ and cute ‘whetstone’ (see cuţitcute)

Derivatives: ascuţealăascuţimeascuţiturăascuţitorascuţitoareascuţiş.

 

asemănạ (vb., I) – 1. to be alike, to resemble; 2. to compare.

Latin *assimilare (Diez, Gramm. 1, 189; Puşcariu, 134, Cioranescu, 461). In fact, Latin assimilare is not attested in (classical) Latin, only assimulare ‘to resemble, to imitate’ and simulare ‘to imitate, to pretend’ which makes a Latin origin less plausible.

In fact, the Romanian verb is a derivative of samă ‘reckoning, account, kind, like, a number of, etc.’ which is extremely productive in Romanian, with older meanings such as ‘a number of, same number as’ from PIE *som-o ‘same, together’ (IEW, 903). The root is found in many Indo-European language groups (seesamă (seamă), semăna). Pre-Roman origin.

Derivatives: asemănarea asemuiasemenea, asemănător etc.

 

asfinţị  (variant sfinţi) (vb., IV) – 1. to set, to go down (about sun or other heavely bodies); 2. (fig.) to be on the wane, to be in decay.

From sfânt ‘holy, saint’ (Miklosich, Slaw. Elem. 44, Cihac) or Latin *affingere < effingere ‘to shape, to fashion, to portray’ (Cioranescu, 465). The meaning of this Latin “etymon” is completely different and, therefore, Cioranescu’s hypothesis cannot be accepted. However, the meaning of asfinţi may be compared to the Neo-Greek expression ήλιος βασιλείει ‘sun is setting/is going down’ (cf. Cioranescu), where the verb βασιλείν is a derivative of  βασιλέος ‘king, emperor’. In other words, the verb may be associated with  sfânt . Therefore, the meaning of this verb might be in connection with some old pagan beliefs associating sunsetting and dying on one hand and to be become holy/immortal, on the other. According to Jordanes (Getica), Dacians venerated their (religious) leaders such as Zamolxis, Deceneus and others, as prophets during their lives and they were considered gods after their death. In fact, sfinţi means both ‘to set, to go down (about the heavenly bodies)’ and ‘to hallow, to sanctify, canonize, to consecrate’  (see sfânt). On the other hand, it is possible that this verb may have a different origin which one cannot grasp at this moment. Possible Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: asfinţireasfinţitasfinţită.

 

asiạtic (variants asiaticescasian (obs.) (adj.; n. masc.) – Asian.

Latin asiaticus ‘Asian’. The form asiaticesc is attested in the 16th century.

 

asịn (variants asenasân (obs.), istr. ąsir) (n., masc.) – donkey.

Latin asinus ‘ass, donkey’ (Puşcariu, 135; Candrea-Densusianu, 100; REW, 704). It is possible that the form has been remodeled later. It is also possible to be a loanword from 15-16 centuries. In fact, asin is a bookish word, rarely used in everyday language. It seems it was introduced in Romanian through the religious literature. The usual word for ‘donkey’ in Romanian is măgar (see măgar).

According to Walde-Hoffmann (1, 72-73), Latin asinus is a loanword from Thraco-Illyrian which borrowed it from a Middle East language. The root is found in many different languages; cf. Turkish, Tatar esek ‘donkey’, Basque astakilo ‘donkey’, astoeme ‘she-donkey’, Hebrew aton ‘she-donkey’.

 

asmuţị (variants a(s)muţasumuţisumuţa) (vb., IV) – to hound at, to urge (on), to set (on).

Vulgar Latin ex-*mucciare (REW, 5707; Candrea-Densusianu, 1197).  Needless to say that this hypothesis makes no sense and it should be rejected. There is no attestation of this latin “verb” or something similar to it and there are no other cognates in any of the Romance languages. However, this verb seems to have a cognate in Lithuanian atsmunti ‘to reject, to chase back’. The prefix at-, in Lithuanian, derives from PIE *ad, and it explains the initial a of the Romanian form which derives from an older *ad-smutire. There are other such parallels between Lithuanian and Romanian (see aminte). Both Romanian and Lithuanian forms seem to derive from PIE *smeit-, smit- ‘to throw’ (IEW, 968); cf. Latin mitto, -ere ‘to let go, to let run away, to send’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: asmuţireasmuţit.

 

aspịdă (n., fem.) – 1. asp; 2. nagging woman.

Medio-Greek ασπίδα (Cioranescu, 478); cf. OCS aspida, Spanish aspid, French aspic.

In fact, the real Greek noun is ασπίς, -ιδος ‘asp’, considered of obscure origin by Boisacq (90), but he associates it with Hebrew śepa ‘asp’. Corominas (1, 382) derives Spanish aspid from Latin aspis, itself of Greek origin. It may have been a Balkan word, found in Greek and Thraco-Illyrian as well, which spread later to Latin and other European languages.

 

ạspru (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian aspru) (adj.) – 1. hard, rough. 2. shaggy; 3. severe, stern; 4. brisk.

Latin asper ‘rough, bitter, austere’ (Puşcariu, 146; Candrea-Densusianu, 191; REW, 768; Cioranescu, 479); cf. Italian aspro, Provensal, Catalan aspre, Frenchapre, Spanish, Portuguese aspero, as well as Albanian ashpër ‘id’.

Derivatives: a (seaspriasprimeasprealăa (seînăspriînăspreală etc.

 

astâmpărạ (variant a stâmpăra) (vb., I) – 1. to quiet, to calm down; 2. to quench.

Latin *extemperare (Densusianu, Rom., 33; Puşcariu, 152; REW, 3082; Rosetti, 1, 163; Cioranescu, 486).

Vulgar Latin *extemperare is not attested (only tempero, -are ‘to abstain, to be moderate, to mix properly’ which is a cognate of astâmpărạ. There are no other cognates in Romance languages from *extemperare. The prefix ex- in front of some verbs usually change the meaning or in some cases it gives the opposite meaning. In fact, in other Indo-European languages there are cognate with an intial (a)s-. Romnaian astâmpăra is a derivative of a stâmpăra.

Benveniste (Mél. Vendryes) associates Latin tempero with Sanskrit (aor.) astambhit and Greek  στεμβω ‘to shake, to ill-treat’ and proposes PIE *(s)temb(h) ‘to heat, to break by hitting’ as a common root and Boisacq (909) reconstructs PIE *stemb-, stembh- for the Greek form associating it with OHG stamfon and Old Norse stappa ‘to tread under foot, to crush’ and I would add English to stamp (under one’s foot). In Romanian there is the expression ‘a stâmpăra focul’ by crushing (partially) the embers. It is obvious that Romanian astâmpăra is cognate with all these forms. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: astâmpărareastâmpărastâmpăratneastâmpărat, etc.

 

ạstfel (adv.) – 1. thus, in this way, like this; 2. therefore, hence.

A compound form from ast (ăst) şi fel (see fel).

 

astrahạn (variant astracan) (n., masc.) – Astrak(h)an fur.

From Russian Astrahan ‘city and province in Russia’.

 

astrăgạci (n., neut.) a shoemaker’s tool used to stretch the sole shoes and boots and to turn over the bootleg.

Latin extrahere ‘to drag out, to release’ (Philippide, ZRPh., 1907, 294; Pascu, Suf., 198) or Hungarian esztergázni ‘to return’ (Scriban; Cioranescu, 489); cf. Bulgarian stragač. Cioranescu argues that the original Hungarian etymon was contaminated with Romanian trăgaci ‘trigger, cock’, but it does not make any sense. In fact, both these nouns have similar from meaning and derive from a trage.  Regarding Latin extrahere, the Latin laryngeal h could not turn into a g, in Romanian.  In Roman Imperial time, the laryngeal was not pronounced anymore, facts ignored by these authors. On the other hand, a Hungarian etymon could not explain the Bulgarian form which is clearly a loanword from Romanian. Both these nouns astrăgaci and trăgaci are derivatives of a trage ‘to pull, to draw’ (seetrage).

 

astrolạb (n., neut.) – astrolab.

Greek αστρολάβοςαστρολάβιον (Gáldi, Les mots, 155) from άστρος ‘star’, λαμβάνειν ‘to catch, to take’; cf. French astrolabe. Attested since 17th century.

 

astrolọg (n., masc.) – astrologer.

Greek αστρολόγος (Gáldi, Les mots, 155) from astro- and < γέγειν; cf. French astroloque. Attested since 17th century.

Derivatives; astrologhicescastrologicastrologie.

 

astronọm (n., masc.) – astronomer.

Greek αστρονόμος (Gáldi, Les mots, 155) din astro- (v. astro-), νόμος ‘law, custom’ < νέμειν ‘to control, to dominate’; cf. French astronome (v. neam¹, noimă). Attested since 17th century.

Derivatives: astronomicescastronomicastronomie.

 

astrucạ – 1. to bury (obs.); 2. to cover.

Vulgar Latin *astru(i)care < astruere ‘to build near, to add’ (Meyer-Lübke, ZRPh., 27, 253; Puşcariu, 153; Candrea-Densusianu, 106; REW, 748; Rosetti, I, 163).

The meaning of the putative Latin etymon is quite different and there no any Romance cognates. Latin astruo is a derivative of struo ‘to pile up, to build’ from PIE *ste-, stre-, streu- ‘to stretch, to spread’ (IEW, 1029); cf. Avestan star ‘shelter, bed’, Umbrian struçla as well as  Latin struix ‘pile’. The meaning of  the derivative astrucământ ‘cover, blanket’ (dial., Banat) is closer to the one of the original root. It seems to be of Thraco=Dacian origin.

Derivatives: astrucareastrucat.

 

astupạ (Aromanian astup, Megleno-Romanian (a)stup, (h)ăstup) (vb., I) – 1. to stop up, to close up, to obturate; 2. to cork.

Latin *adstuppare stuppa ‘coarse hemp or flax’ (Philippide, Principii, 99; Puşcariu, 154; REW, 8333; Cioranescu, 495). Latin stuppa is considered to be a loanword from Greek στύππη; cf. Albanian shtupë ‘coarse fibers’.  The root is found in other  Indo-European language groups. In Germanic languages; cf. Dutchstoppen, Old English, OHG stopfon are all from Vulgar Latin *stuppare. Other cognates in Celtic languages: cf. Breton stouva ‘to close, to stop up, to cork’, Breton stouv ‘cork’ come closer to Romanian astupa as well as Hittite ištap ‘to cover, to close’. All these forms seem to derive from PIE *(s)teup- ‘to push, to thrust, to close up’ (IEW, 1034).  Romanian dop ‘cork’ is related to these forms, but it has no c(see dop). To sum up, the verb astupa may be either a derivative of Romanian language from Latin stuppa or rather of Thraco-Illyrian origin since stuppa existed previously in Balkan languages. I should mention that Albanian shtupë is not of Latin origin due to the fact Latin s remains s in Albanian, only the Proto-Indo-European *s turned into sh in Albanian.

Derivatives: astupăturăastupătoareastupătorastupuşdestupa.

 

asudạ (Aromanian asud, Megleno-Romanian sud) (vb., I) – 1. to sweat, to perspirate; 2. to steam, to become damp.

Latin *assudare (Puşcariu, 155; Candrea-Densusianu, 107; REW, 3076; Rosetti). This putative Latin etymon is not attested and there are not any Romance cognates deriving from it. In Latin there is sudo „to sweat” from which derive the Romance languages forms. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages: cf. Sanskrit svidyatisvedate ‘to sweat’, sveda ‘sweat’, Avestan χvaeda ‘sweat’, Latvian sviedri ‘sweat’, Greek (ε)ίδος ‘id’, OHG swissen ‘to sweat’ and so on, all from PIE *sueid- , with nominal forms *su(e)drosuoido ‘sweat’ (IEW, 1043) (see sudoare ‘sweat’).

Derivatives: asudareasudatasudătorasudăturăneasudat etc.

 

asụpra (Aromanian asupră, Megleno-Romanian supră) (adv.) – 1. over, above; 2. against.

Latin *ad-supra (Puşcariu, 156; REW, 200; Cioranescu, 497). There are no cognates in other Romance languages, except for Sardinian assubra. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit upari, Avestan upari ‘above’, Greek ΰπερ, Umbrian supersubra, Albanian sipër and so on, all from PIE *uperuperi ‘over, above’ (IEW, 1105).

Derivatives: deasupraa asupriasuprireasuprealăasupritor.

 

asurzị (Aromanian asurdzăscu) (vb., IV) – 1. to grow deaf; 2. to deafen.

Latin  *assurdire obsurdesco (Puşcariu, 157; REW, 6024; Cioranescu, 498); cf. French assourdir, Italian assordire, as well as Albanian shurdër ‘deaf’. It seems to be a derivative of surd (see surd ‘deaf’).

Derivatives: asurzireasurzitorasurzeală.

 

aşạ (variants aşeaşea, Aromanian acşeaşiţe, Megleno-Romanian şa, Istro-Romanian (a)şo) (adv.) – 1. such, in this way, like this; 2. so.

Latin *ac sic < sic ‘thus’ (Puşcariu, 133; REW, 7897; Cioranescu, 450); cf. Italian cosi, Spanish asi, Provensal aissi, as well as Sanskrit asan ‘so and so’, Sanskrit ish ‘so, also’, Old Latin suad ‘so’, Greek ώς ‘id’, all from PIE *sŭo ‘thus, so’ (IEW, 884). The adverb aşa cannot derive from Latin *ac sic or sic which would not give aşa in Romanian. Although there are some similar forms in other Romance languages, but they cannot not derive from the same Vulgar Lartin etymon. Romanian aşa is closer to Old Latin suad and PIE *sŭo. It derives from an older *acsua > *asia. It seems to be of pre-Roman origin.

 

aşadạr (adv.) – therefore, hence.

It is a compound form from aşa and dar (see aşadar ‘but’, iar ‘but, and’).

 

ạşchie (Aromanian iascl’ă) (n., fem.) – chip, sliver, splinter.

Vulgar Latin *ascla < *astula < assula ‘splinter, chip’ (Puşcariu, 136; Candrea-Densusianu, 94; REW, 736); cf. Vegliote jaska ‘id’, Napolitan aška, Italian (dial.)aschia,  Italian ascola, Spanish astilla, as well as Albanian ashkë ‘id’, Neo-Greek άσκλα ‘id’.

As one may see the Romance forms presuppose many different Vulgar Latin etymons. Corominas (1, 284) derives Spanish astilla from a Medieval Latin astĕlla ‘little chip or splinter’, while different Italian dialects presuppose other etymons. Some of the Italian dialectal forms are closer to the Romanian and Albanian ones. The Neo-Greek form is a loanword from Aromanian. It seems to be of  Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: a aşchiaaşchiereaşchiuţăaşchioarăaşchios.

 

aşezạ (Aromanian aşedz) (vb., I) – 1. to seat (someone), to sit down; 2. to place, to put, to set, to lay; 3. to pile, to stack; 4. to settle down, to lay down.

Latin *assediare < sedere ‘to sit down’ (Hasdeu, Etym., 1992; Puşcariu, 142; REW, 721; Cioranescu, 464). The only Romance cognate seems to be Frenchasseoir < Vulgar Latin *assedere (cf. Dauzat, 51) (see şedea ‘to sit’).

Derivatives: aşezareaşezataşezământaşezătoraşezătură.

 

aşteạmăt (obs.) (adv.)  – 1. secretly, stealthly; 2. slowly, quitely.

It was associated with Latin schema < Greek σχήμα (Puşcariu, Dacor., 5, 411-420) or with štimati > Latin aestimare ‘to estimate’ (Iordan, RF, 2, 276). Needless to say that neither of  these hypotheses can be accepted for either phonological or semantic reasons. Cioranescu (483) considers it to be of unknown origin. This word may be associated with PIE *tem(ǝ)- ‘dark’ (IEW, 1063), found in many Indo-European languages with this meaning including Romanian întuneca ‘to become dark’, întuneric ’dark’. The root is found also in other Nostratic languages from Proto-Nostratic *t(ʰ)am-, *t(ʰ)ǝm- ‘to cover over, to hide; to become dark’ (B&K, 101). The meaning in some Afrasian languages is closer to  aşteamăt; cf. Egyptian tms ‘to hide, to cover, to bury’, Coptic tōms ‘to bury’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

aşteptạ (Aromnian aşteptu, Megleno-Romanian ştet, Istro-Romanian aşteptu) (vb., I) – 1. to wait (for), to await; 2. to expect; 3. to hope for.

Latin *adspectare > *astectare (Meyer-Lübke, Gramm. 1, 469; Puşcariu, 151; Densusianu, Rom., 33, 274; Candrea-Densusianu, 104; REW, 3039; Cioranescu, 484); cf. Italian aspettare, Calabrian astettare. These putative Latin etymons have no attestation, although they are similar to Latin expectare ‘to look out for, to wait for, to hope for’, a derivative of  spectare ‘to watch, to examine, to consider’. All these forms derive from PIE *spek- ‘to look at’, spek-to ‘to behold, to perceive, to sight’; cf. Sanskrit spaśati (III, sg.) ‘to see, to look at’, Avestan spasyeiti ‘to look at’, Greek σπεκτομαι (I, sg.) ‘to look at’.

Derivatives: aşteptareaşteptat.

 

aştẹrne (Aromanian aşternu, Megleno-Romanian ştern, Istro-Romanian (a)şternu) (vb., III) – 1. to spread (out), to lay out; 2. to make one’s bed; 3. to write down.

Latin asternere ‘prostrate oneself’ (Cipariu, Gramm., 107; Puşcariu, 151; Candrea-Densusianu, 105; REW, 8248; Cioranescu, 485). Latin asterno, -ere is a derivative of sterno ‘to spread, strew, scatter, lay out’ which is semantically much closer to Romanian aşterne. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Greek στρώννυω „to spread”, Albanian shtrin „to spread”, Old Irish sernim „to spread out, to lay out”, which are also semantically closer to aşterne. All derive from PIE *ster-, steru-, streu- „to spread (out), to lay out” (IEW, 1029). In other words this Romanian verb is rather a derivative from the root stern-o which might be of Latin or Thraco-Dacian origin, prefixed with a.

Derivatives: aşternereaşternut.

 

atạre (Aromanian a(h)tare, Megleno-Romanian ftari(h)tare) (adv.) – such, as such.

Latin talis ‘of such a kind’ (Cioranescu, 502). Similar froms are found in other Romance languages; cf. Old French itel > French tel ‘such’, Provensal aital, Old Spanish atal > Spanish tal.  All these forms seem to derive from a Vulgar Latin *atal-i; cf. OCS tolŭ ‘thus, such’.

 

atârnạ (vb., I) – to hang, to be suspended, to hang down.

According to Cihac (2, 476), it is a loanword from Hungarian aterni ‘to spread over’, while Cioranescu (519) considers it of uncertain origin. This verb is found in all Romanian dialects and, therefore, it cannot be of Hungarian origin. On the other hand, Romanian atârna is synonymous with anina and it seems they have the same origin, namely from from PIE *ar- ‘to divide, to hang, to go up’ (IEW, 61) through an older *arnina > atârna (see anina). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: atârnatatârnătoareatârnăturăneatârnareneatârnattârnaţ „balcony, terrace”(Trans.).

 

atật (Aromanian ahtântuahâtatânt, mgl. tăntu) (adv.)  – 1. so much, so long; 2. as much as, as far.

Latin eccum tantum (Puşacariu, 162; Densusianu, Rom. 33, 274; Candrea-Densusianu, 110; REW, 8562). Derivatives from Latin tantus are found in all Romance languages.

Latin tantus, -a, -um ‘so great’ is derived from tam ‘equally’, being reconstruceed after quantus (cf. Walde, II, 648); cf. Oscan e-tanto ‘tanta’, Umbrian e-tantu‘tanta’. The initial e- in Oscan and Umbrian forms brings them closer to the Romanian ones. In other words, it is clearly not necessary to start from a Latin eccum tantum to have Romanian atât. It seems to be of Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

atịnge (vb., III)  – 1. to touch, to brush against; 2. to disturb, to trouble; 3. to offend; 4. to reach.

Latin attingere ‘to touch, to reach, to attack’ (Puşcariu, 161; Candrea-Densusianu, 108; REW, 768); cf. Italian attingere, Old Provensal atenher.

Latin attingere is a derivative of tango ‘id’ from PIE *tag- ‘to touch, to take’ (IEW, 1054); cf. Gothic tēkan ‘to touch’, Old Norse taka ‘to take’, Old Irish tongid(III, sg.) ‘to swear’, cymr. tyngu ‘to swear’.

Derivatives: atingereatinsatingător.

 

atlạs (n., neut.) – atlas, books of maps.

From  Atlas ‘a titan of classical mythology’ (since 17th century).

 

atụnci (Aromanian atunţea, Megleno-Roamanian tunţea, Istro-Romanian (a)tunţ) (adv.) – 1. then, in that time; 2. consequently, therefore.

Latin *ad tunc ce < tunc ‘then’ (Philippide, Principii, 92; Puşcariu, 164; Candrea-Densusianu, 114; REW, 810; Cioranescu, 528). Similar forms are found only in the Romance languages from the Iberian Peninsula; cf. Catalan adonchs, Spanish entonces, Old Portuguese entom.

The form tunc was used until Rome’s Republican times, later it was used tum, while tunc was used only emphatically. In Medieval Latin appears the form ad tuncwhich could not possibly have any influence on Romanian. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

ạţă (n., fem.) – 1. thread, fiber; 2. directly, straight on.

Latin acia ‘thread, yarn’ (Puşcariu, 158; REW, 102; Cioranescu, 500); cf. Italian acia, Calabrian azza, Venetian atssa, Milanese asa, Engadine atsa.  In fact, Latinacia would give in Romanian     *ace or something similar. Romanian form comes much closer to the Calabrian, Venetian and Engadine forms. Walde -Hoffmann(I, 8) derives acia < *aquia from acus „needle”; cf. Armenian asłani ‘thread’, asełn ‘needle’.

Derivatives: aţicăaţos.

 

aţâţạ (adv.) – 1. to light, to kindle; 2. to stir up, to instigate.

Latin *attitiare from  titio ‘firebrand, piece of  burning wood’ (Puşcariu, Lat. ti, 40; Puşcariu, 163; Candrea-Densusianu, 111; REW, 769; Cioranescu, 521). Romanian aţâţa should be associated with  a înteţi ‘to grow, to kindle’ (see  înteţităciune). The Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no other cognates in any of the Romance languages. It seems to be of pre-Roman origin.

Derivatives: aţâţareaţâţataţâţător.

 

aţịne (vb., III) – 1. to be on the watch of somebody, to be in wait of somebody; 2. to be in watch for.

Lat. *attenare < attinere ‘hold on/to/together/back’ (Puşcariu, 160; Cioranescu, 515). It should be considered a derivative of Romanian from a ţine ‘to hold’ (seeţine).

 

aţipị (vb., IV) – to fall into a light sleep, to fall asleep.

Latin *adtepire < tepere „to be warm, lukewarm” (Rosetti, I, 163; Cioranescu, 317).

The Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no cognates in any of the Romance languages. On the other hand, the meanings are quite different. However, the verb aţipi might be associated with Latin tepeo from PIE *tep- ‘to be warm’ (IEW, 1069) (see topi ‘to melt’), although the association is only hypothetical. Uncertain origin.

Derivatives: aţipireaţipit.

 

ạu¹ (interj.) – ouch.

PIE *au ‘exclamation of pain or irritation’ (IEW, 71); cf. Latin au ‘id’, Sanskrit o,  NHG au, Latvian au, Czech, Polish au It has the same origin as aoleo ‘ah, o my, oh dear’ which cannot be explain through Latin (see aoleo).

 

ạu² (obs.) (Aromanian auai) (conj.) – 1. or; 2. possibly, perhaps.

Latin aut ‘or’ (Diez, 1, 292; Puşcariu, 165; Candrea-Densusianu, 114; REW, 810; Cioranescu, 529). Latin aut should remain the same in Romanian.

Walde (1, 87) derives Latin aut from PIE *au; cf. Greek αύ ‘on the other hand, or’, as well as Umbrian uteote ‘or’, Oscan outi ‘or’. Romanian au should be considered of  Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

ạuă (dial., obs.) (n., fem.)  – grapes.

Latin ūva ‘grape, cluster’ (Puşcariu, 166; Candrea-Densusianu, 117; DAR; Cioranescu, 530); cf. Italian, Spanish, Portuguese uva ‘id’, Sardinian ua. The word was an archaism already in the 17th century, but still used today  in Oltenia to define a variety of grapes (cf. Puşcariu, Dacor., 8, 324). This Romanian noun may be of Latin origin, but the derivation is not clear.

 

audiẹnţă (n., fem.) – audience.

Latin audientia (Cioranescu, 352) from audire „to hear” (see auzi). Since 17th century.

 

ạur (Istro-Romanian  aur) (n.) – gold.

Latin aurum ‘gold’ (Puşcariu, 170; Candrea-Densusianu, 118; REW, 800; Cioranescu, 534).

Latin aurum derive from an older Italic *auso-m, itself from PIE *aus-os to be bright, gold, dawn’ (IEW, 86). The root is found in many other Indo-European languages. In a number of other Indo-European languages it means ‘gold’ as well ; cf. Sabine ausom ‘gold’, Old Prussian ausis ‘id’, Tocharian A wäs ‘id’, as well as Irish or ‘id’, Welsh aur ‘id’, Albanian ar ‘id’, which, according to a number of linguists,  are of Latin origin.

One should not forget that Dacia had huge gold deposits, the largest in Europe  (which was the main reason why the Romans conquered Dacia (see Introduction)) and Dacians were great specialists in extracting and processing it. On the other hand, the form is found in a large number of different indo-European languages. It may be considered of Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: a auriauraraurărieauritdauritaurosaurifer etc.

 

aụstru (Aromanian austru) (n., neut.)  – south-western wind (in Romania).

Latin auster ‘south wind’ (Puşcariu, 174; Candrea-Densusianu, 113; REW, 807; DAR).

 

aụş (Aromniasn auş ‘grandfather, ancestor’) (obs.) (n., masc.) – old man, grandfather.

Latin avus ‘grandfather’ (Candrea-Densusianu, 122; DAR; REW, 839; Cioranescu, 536) which derives from PIE *aweu-, awyo-, awo- ‘grandfather’ (Lehmann, A242); cf. Hittite hahhaš, Gothic awo ‘grandmother’, Lithuanian avynas ‘grandfather’, Welsh ewytr, Old Irish ai ‘grandfather’, Armenian hav ‘id’. Romanian bunic ‘id’ derives from the same root (see bunic ‘grandfather’).

 

auşẹl (n., masc.) –  (gold)-crested wren (Regulus cristatus).

It was derived erroneously from  auş ‘old man, grandfather’ (DAR; Cioranescu, 536), or from Latin *aucellus < avis ‘bird’ (Scriban Romanian *aucel, not auşel.

It seems to derive from PIE *aŭei- ‘bird’ (IEW, 86); cf. Sanskrit vih ‘bird’, Avestan viš ‘bird’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

auzị (Aromanian avdu, Megleno-Romanian ut, Istgro-Romanian ovdu) (vb., IV) – 1. to hear; 2. to find out.

Latin  audire ‘to hear’ (Puşcariu, 167; Candrea-Densusianu, 124; REW, 779; Cioranescu, 542). Pan-romanic.

Derivatives:  auzauzitorneauzitnemaiauzit.

 

avậnt (n., neut.) – 1. enthusiasm; 2. boom; 3. elan, momentum.

It is a derivative of vânt „wind” prefixed with a (Cioranescu, 553).

Derivatives: a (seavântaavântareavântat.

 

aveạ (Aromanian amavuiavutaveare) (vb., II) – 1. to have, to possess; 2. to consist of.

Latin habere ‘to have’ (Puşcariu, 72; Candrea-Densusianu, 126; REW, 3958; Cioranescu, 550); cf. Vegliote avar, Italian avere, French avoir, Spanish haber. Other Italic languagers have similar forms; cf.  Umbrian habe ‘habet’, habiest ‘habebit’, Oscan hafiest ‘habebit’.

I have to mention that some of the inflected forms of Romanian verb a avea cannot derive from the equivalent (or other) forms of  Latin habeo, -ere. For instance, out  the six forms of the present tense, only two can really derive from Latin. In other words, out of: am (I, sg), ai (II, sg), are (III, sg), avem (I, pl.), aveţi (II, pl.),au (III, pl.), only (I, pl.) and (II, pl.) forms match Latin ones, while the other four do not, especially (I, sg.) and (III, sg.). On the other hand, am (I, sg.) matches well the equivalent Albanian form kam (I, sg).

Proto-Indo-European had two similar roots: *ghabh- ‘to catch, to take’ (IEW, 408) and *kap- ‘to catch’ (IEW, 537) from which the forms of the verb ‘to have’ evolved in different Indo-European languages. According to Walde-Pokorny, Proto-Indo-European did not have the aspirated voiceless velar *k(ʰ), while Bomhard-Kerns shows that it had it; cf. PIE *k(ʰ)ap(ʰ) ‘to take, to seize’ (B&K, 242). Furthermore, I have shown that Proto-Indo-European had this sound using evidence from Romanian and Albanian (see Introduction).

From these two roots different Indo-European languages developed either the forms of the verb ‘to have’ or for the verb ‘to catch, to take’. It is no doubt that in Albanian and Celtic languages the verb ‘to have’ derive from PIE *k(ʰ)ap(ʰ): cf. Albanian ka ‘to have’, Cornish caffos ‘to have’, Middle Breton caf(f)out, Bretonkavout ‘id’, while PIE *ghabh- gave verbs for ‘to catch, to take’ in Celtic languages; cf. Old Irish gaibim ‘to take, to grab’.

In Latin the situation is the other way around, where from PIE *ghabh > Latin habere ‘to have’, while PIE *k(ʰ)ap(ʰ) > Latin  capio ‘to take, to seize’ (cf. B&K, 242). Germanic languages are split in two: the east Germanic such as Gothic follows the same route as Italic langauges; cf. Gothic geben ‘wealth’, while in western Germanic languages the verbal forms for ‘to have’ derive from a PIE *k(ʰ)ap(ʰ); cf. OHG haben ‘to have’, Old Islandic hafa ‘id’, Old English habban‘id’, Old Frisian habba ‘id’, Old Norse habbean ‘id’.

Regarding Thraco-Illyrian, one may safely assume that the verbs for ‘to have’ derived from PIE * k(ʰ)ap(ʰ), as clearly indicates Albanian ka ‘to have’, while regarding Romanian a avea, as I said already we may assume that it could be a mixture between Latin habere and the original Thraco-Dacian verb for ‘to have’, if not of Thraco-Dacian origin altogether. Vladimir Orel (2000) shows that PIE *k and *k(ʰ) turned into k, in Proto-Albanian. On the other hand, I have shown (see Introduction) that Proto-Indo-European had the sound *k(ʰ) which turned into the laryngeal h in Thraco-Dacian and preserved as such in Romanian, which, in some instances, it has fallen out. From the other PIE root *ghabh-, we have Romanian a găbui ‘to catch’, where PIE *gh turned into g (see Intro) (see găbui,dibui).

Furthermore, before ending this discussion, I have to show that a similar root was reconstructed by Orel for Afrasian languages, namely AA *qam- ‘to possess, to hold’ (Hamito-Semitic…, 1995, 2033); cf. Egyptian hvm ‘to possess, to hold’, Old Chadic *qam ‘to hold’. These Afrasian forms remind us Albanian kam ‘I have’ and Romanian (eu) am ‘I have’. These are definitely not mere coincidences, but we are still far to fully understand these matters which need more investigations, but an ampler discussion is beyond the scope of this etymological dictionary.

Derivatives: avereavut, avuţiea înavuţineavutneavere.

 

avrămeạsă (n., fem.) – hedge/water hyssop (Gratiola afficinalis).

Bulgarian, Russian avram (DAR; Pascu, Suf., 26; Cioranescu, 558) or from  Avram ‘Abraham’ (Tagliavini, Arch. Rom. XII; 167).

 

ạxă (n., fem.) – axis.

Grekek άξων ‘id’ (Gáldi, Les mots, 156; Cioranescu, 559). Attested since 17th century

Derivatives: axial.

 

axiọmă (n., fem.)  – axiom.

Greek αξίωμα (Gáldi, Les mots, 156) from αξιούν ‘to be considered worthy of’; cf. French axiome. Since 17th century.

Derivatives: axiomatic.

 

ạzi (Aromanian ază, Megleno-Romanian azăas) (adv.) – today.

Latin  hac die  > *hadie which replaced  hodie ‘today’ (Puşcariu, 176; REW, 4163).

Puşcariu’s explanation does not take into account the Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian forms which do not fit into his hypothesis. Romanian azi is a derivative of zi ‘day’ prefixed by a (see zi).

Derivatives: astăzi „id”.

 

azịmă (variant azmă, Aromanian adzîmă, Megleno-Romanian azim) (n., fem.) – unleavened bread.

Greek άζυμος (Murnu, 9, Diculescu, Elementele, 472; Cioranescu, 566). This type of bread is used in some church rituals. Cioranescu shows that this word was introduced in the first centuries of the Christian era. It is present in some other Romance languages and dialects; cf. Calabrian áyimo, Venetian azme, Portugueseasmo.

 

azvârlị (variant zvârli, Aromanian azvîrlescu) (vb., IV) – to fling, to throw out/away.

It is of imitative nature from the interjection zvâr ‘it imitates the noise made by a thrown object’, suffixed with -li.  Bulgarian vărliam and Serbo-Croatian vrljti are loanwords form Romanian.

Derivatives: azvârlităazvârlitură.

 

alifịe (Aromanian alfie) (n., fem.) – ointment, salve, unguent.

Neo-Greek αλουφή ‘id’ (Roesler, 564; Cioranescu, 200).

 

alinạ (vb., I) – 1. to temper, to mitigate, to allievate; 2. to appease, to soothe.

Latin *allenare (Puşcariu, 62; Candrea-Densusianu, 989; Rosetti, 1, 79).

The Latin etymon has no attestation, while Sardinian allenare ‘to teach, to instrucrt, to train’ is not a cognate since it has a totally different meaning. It is related tolin and alinta, all from PIE *leno- ‘weak, soft’ (IEW, 667) (see alintalin). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alinarealinatalinătoralinătură.

 

alintạ (vb., I)  – 1. to caress, to fondle; 2. to spoil; 3. to frolic.

Latin *allentare < lenis ‘soft, smooth, gentle, calm’ (Candrea-Densusianu, 990) or from Latin lentus ‘slow, flexible’ (Puşcariu, 64; REW, 257). Italian allentare ‘to loosen, to relax’ and Romanian alinta do not seem to derive from a common Vulgar Latin etymon. This verb is related to a alina from the same PIE root *leno- ‘weak, soft’ (IEW, 667) (see alinalinlenelinişte). Thabo-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alintalintarealintăturăalintător.

 

alişverịş (Aromanian alişverişe, Megleno-Romanian alişvăroş) (obs.) (n., neut.) – commerce, trade, business.

Turkish alişveriş < alıs ‘gift’ and verıs ‘to take’ (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, 2, 17; Cioranescu, 209); cf. Neo-Greek αλισβερίσι, Albanian alishverish, Bulgarianališveriš.

 

alt (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian altu, Istro-Romanian ot) (pron.) – other.

Latin *altru < alter ‘other’ (Puşcariu, 67; Candrea-Densusianu., 48; REW, 382). Panromanic; cf. Sardianian altu ‘other’. The root is found in other Indo-European languages; cf. Oscan alloaltram, Greek άλλος ‘other’, Welsh aile ‘id’, Breton all ‘id’, Lithuanian autra (adv.) ‘secondly’, Armenian ail ‘other’. All these forms derive PIE *alio-s ‘other’ (IEW, 25; Walde, 1, 30).

 

altạr (Aromanian altaraltare) (n., neut.) – altar.

Latin *altarium  ‘altar’ (Puşcariu, 68; Candrea-Densusianu, 49; REW, 381); Panromanic; cf. Albanian liter ‘id’. From OCS olŭtarĭ (Miklosich, SlawElem., 33; Cihac, 2, 227; Gáldi, 148); cf. Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Russian, Czech, Hungarian oltar. The word entered in Proto-Romanian along with other terms regarding Christian belief. From Romanian it was borrowed into Old Church Slavonic and other neighboring languages.

 

altịţă (n., fem.) – stream of ornaments on a traditional shirt or blouse.

Serbo-Croatian latica (Cihac, 2, 24; Hasdeu, Etym.) or Latin altitia ‘height’ (Cioranescu, 219); cf. Italian altezza ‘height’. Serbo-Croatian latice displays the metathesis of the lateral, a phonological feature specific to Slavic languages. If Romanian would have borrowed it from Serbo-Croatian would have kept it as such. Therefore, Serbo-Croatian borrowed it from Romanian, not the other way around.

Latin altitia was rarely used. According to Cioranescu, the term is justifed by the fact that such an embroideries are found on the upper part of the sleeve of the traditional Romanian shirts. The term seems to be a derivative of Romanian from the root alt- as in înalt ‘high, tall’ (see înalt).

 

ạltfel (adv.) – 1. in a different way; 2. otherwise.

It is a compound form from alt ‘other’ and fel ‘kind, type’ (see altfel).

 

altmịnteri (variants altmintereaaltmintrelea etc) (adv.) – otherwise, in a different manner.

Latin * alia  mente (Cipariu, Gramm., II, 40; Hasdeu, Etym.; Puşcariu, 44; Puşcariu, Dacor., 3, 397; Candrea-Densusianu, 1133; Rosetti, 1, 114; Cioranescu, 220). The term is rather a derivative of Romanian from alt and the verbal root mint- as in minte ‘mind’ and a aminti ‘to remember’ (see  altminte).

 

altoị (vb., IV) – 1. to graft;  2. to beat, to hit (fig.).

Hungarian oltvány ‘to graft’ (Gáldi, 83; Cioranescu, 221).

Derivatives: a altoialtoialăport-altoi.

 

aluạt (variants aloţelalăuţel, Aromanian aluataloat, Megleno-Romanian luţol, Istro-Romanian aluot) (n., neut.)  – dough.

Latin *allevatum < allevare ‘to raise’ (Puşcariu, 69; Candrea-Densusianu, 1008; REW, 360).

The putative Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no cognates in any Romance languages. On the other hand, the Megleno-Romanian luţol cannot be explained by Latin *allevatum. Romanain aluat seems to derive from PIE *lei- ‘soft, sticky’ (IEW, 662), with a formant in -t, *lei-t, prefixed with the preposition *ad; cf. Lithuanian lyteti ‘to touch, to spread’, Latvian làitêt ‘to spread’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

alụnă (Aromanian alună, Istro-Romanian alure) (n., fem.)  – hazelnut (Corylus avellana).

Lat. *abellona < abellana ‘hazelnut’ (Puşcariu, 70; Candrea-Densusianu, 51; REW, 17); cf. Italian avellana, Spanish avellana, Catalan vellana, Provensal aulona.

They say that Latin abellana derives from the place-name Abella (Italian Avella). Walde-Hoffmann (1, 3) shows that Old Latin form was (nuxaulena where intervocalic u turned into b in Classical Latin. This fact may shed some light on the fact that Latin intervocalic b (v) has ‘disappeared’ in Romanian (see cal‘horse’). On the other hand, I have to mention that b (v) were not elided when they were present in Proto-Indo-European (see  abur ‘steam’, avea ‘to have’ etc.).

Derivatives: alun, alunişaluniţăalunelalunar.

 

alunecạ (variant a luneca, Aromanian alunic) (vb., I) – to slide, to slip.

Latin *lubricare ‘to lubricate’ < lubricus ‘slippery, deceitful’ (Philippide, Principii, 98; Puşcariu, 997; Candrea-Densusianu, 1021; Pascu, 1, 38; REW, 5132; Cioranescu, 4944) or Latin *lunicare < luna ‘moon’ (Meyer, Alb. St., 4, 36). None of these two etymologies can be accepted. In the first case, the derivation is not possible, in the second the meaning of the putative etymon has nothing to do with the Romanian verb aluneca which derives from PIE *lei- ‘slippery, greasy, to slide’, slimno ‘slippery’ (IEW, 662), prefixed with the preposition *ad. Cognates are found in many different Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit lindu‘slippery’, Latin  lino ‘to soil’, Old Irish slemun ‘soft, slippery’, Lithuanian lendu, lišti ‘to slide’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alunecarealunecosalunecuşalunecatalunecătură.

 

alungạ (vb., I) – to chase (away).

Latin *allongare (Puşcariu, 71; Candrea-Densusianu, 1024; REW, 1853; Cioranescu, 234). The Latin etymon does not exist and there are not any cognates in other Romanace languages.

Romanian alunga seems to be cognate with Latin abigo ‘to chase’, as well as same as Greek απάγω ‘to chase’ and Sanskrit apa-ajati ‘to chase’, which are compound forms from PIE *apo- ‘behind, after’ (IEW, 53) and PIE *ago- ‘to drive’ (IEW, 4), therefore a *apo-ago > *apago. The evolution of Romanian  aalunga is not clear, but it seems it is the result of a contamination with lung ‘long’ or other unknown word. The whole evolution is not clear. It seems to be of Thrace-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: alungarealungător.

 

amạn (interj.) (obs.) – mercy!, woe!

Turkish aman ‘id’ < Arab āman ‘id’ (Şăineanu, II, 18; Cioranescu, 228); cf. Albanian, Bulgarian aman ‘id’. French aman and Spanish amán are loanwords from Arabic (cf. Cioranescu).

 

amanẹt (Aromanian amânete, Megleno-Romanian amanet) (n., neut.) – warranty, pawn.

Turkish amanet < emanet ‘id’ (Roesler, 587; Şăineanu, II, 19; Cioranescu, 230); cf. Neo-Greek αμανέτι, Albanian, Bulgarian, Serbian amanet ‘id’.

Derivative: a amaneta.

 

amạr (Aromanian amar, Megleno-Romanian (an)mar, Istro-Romanian amår) (adj.) – 1. bitter; 2. trouble, suffering.

Latin amarus ‘bitter’ (Puşcariu, 73; Candrea-Densusianu, 53; REW, 406; Cioranescu, 233); cf. Italian amaro, French amer, Spanish amargo, Vegliote amnar as well as Middle Irish amar ‘trouble, suffering’ which may be a loanword from Latin. It seems to be of Latin origin.

Derivatives: a amărîamărâciuneamărât etc.

 

amăgị (Aromanian amaie „witchcraft”) (vb., IV) – 1. to cheat; 2. to tempt.

Greek μαγεύω ‘to bewitch, to enchant’ (Hasdeu, Etym.; Diculescu, Elem., 474; Rosetti, 2, 66; Cioranescu, 227).

Boisacq (597) shows that μάγοι ‘magi’ as well as μαγεύω derive from Old Persian maguš. The Magi were the caste of priests in ancient Media (cf. Herodotus, 1,101).

The initial a of the Romanian verb cannot be explained if it would be a loanword from Greek. However, it has a cognate in the  Sardinian (Logudorian dialect)ammajare ‘to bewitch’. There is no Latin equivalent or any other Romance language. In Romanian and Sardinian are of pre-Roman origin, from the same root as the Old Persian maguš is coming from.

Derivatives: amăgireamăgealăamăgitoramăgita dezamăgidezamăgire.

 

amănụnt (n., neut.) – detail.

A derivative of mărunt ‘small’, prefixed with a (cf. Cioranescu, 232) (see mărunt).

Derivatives: a amănunţiamănunţitamănunţime.

 

amânạ (Aromanian amân) (vb., I) – 1. to postpone, to delay; 2. to adjourn.

Latin *ad mane (Puşcariu, 79; REW, 2924; Cioranescu, 249). The putative Latin etymon is not a verb, but an adverb which eventually turned into a verb and second, there are  no cogantes in any of the Romance languages. However, there is a cognate in Albanian mënoj ‘to postpone, to delay’, overlooked by all these authors. Both of them derive from PIE *men- ‘to remain, to stay, to stop, to cease’ (IEW, 729) (see rămâne). Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: amânareamânat.

 

amândọi (Aromanian, Istro-Romanian amândoi) (pron.) – both.

Latin ambo duo > *ambo dui (Puşcariu, 80; REW, 411; Cioranescu, 250). There are cognates in a few Romance languages: cf. Romansch amenduos, Provensalamdui.

Romanian amândoi is rather  a derivative of Romanian language, especially the numaral doi cannot derive from Latin duo, but from a similar Pre-Roman form (see doi ‘two’).

 

ameninţạ (vb., I) – to threaten.

Latin *amminaciare < minaciae ‘threat’ (Puşcariu, 77; REW, 5584; Cioranescu, 242). There are cognates in a number of Romance languages; cf. Italianminacciare ‘to threate’, Provensal, Catalan menassar ‘id’, French menacer ‘id’, Spanish amenazar ‘id’, as well as Albanian mënirë ‘to threaten’ which does not seem to be of Latin origin.

De Mauro-Mancini (1250) argues that Latin *minaciare is the etymon of Italian minacciare, while Spanish amenazar, according to Corominas, derives from Latin  *minacia. In other words, Vulgar Latin offers a number of different forms which, ultimately, can be associated with  PIE *men- ‘to step on, to press, to hit, to push’ (IEW, 726).

Derivatives: ameninţareameninţatameninţător.

 

amestecạ (Aromanian ameastic) (vb, I) – 1. to mix; 2. to mix up; 3. to blend in.

Latin *ammixticare < mixtus ‘mixture’ (Candrea-Densusianu, 1086; Pascu, I, 115; REW, 5617; Cioranescu, 244). Latin mixtus is a derivative of misceo ‘to mix’. In fact, Romanian amesteca should be considered a derivative of mesteca ‘to chew’, prefixed with a, which is a cognate of Latin masticare ‘to chew’ (seemesteca). There are cognates in most Indo-European groups; cf. Sanskrit mekşayati ‘to mix, to shake’, Avestan mišraminašti ‘to mix’, Greek μείξω ‘id’, Middle Irish mescaid  ‘id’, Welsh mysgu ‘id’, OHG miskan ‘id’, Lithuanian miešiu ‘id’, Lithuanian mištoke ‘churn, mixer’, Old Bulgarian mešomešiti ‘to mix’, all from PIE *mei-k- ‘to mix’ (IEW, 714), with the formants *meisko- şi meikro-, in various Indo-European languages.

Dirvatives: amestecatamestecător, amestecătură.

 

ameţị (vb, IV) – 1. to become dizzy; 2. to be a little drunk or dizzy.

Latin *ammatiare < *mattus ( (Puşcariu, ZRPh., 32, 717) or Latin *ammateare < *mattea ‘stick, club’ (Cioranescu, 245). The Latin “etymons” do not exist and there are no cognates in Romance languages. On the other hand, the meaning of the putative Latin etymons are different. Cioranescu associates ameţi with Italianammazzare ‘to kill’ and Italian  matto ‘mad, crazy’, but the Italian forms have  also, different meanings. However, this Romanian verb is a cognate of Greekμετύω ‘to be drunk, to be dizzy’, as well as  μέθη ‘drunkness’. Chantraine (676) associates these Greek forms with μέδυ ‘mead, wine’; cf. Romanian mied‘mead’.

All these forms derive from PIE *medhu ‘honey, mead’ (IEW (707) (see miedbezmeticdezmetici). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: ameţealăameţireameţitameţitor.

 

amiạză (variants amiazinămiazănămiezi, Aromanian n’eadză-dzuuă) (n., fem.) – noon, middle of the day.

Latin *medi-die (Cioranescu, 246); The Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no real cognates in Romance languages. However, there are similar forms in both Latin and some of the the Romance languages; cf. Latin meridies > Italian meriggio.

Latin *medi-die would have given in Romanian *miez-zi or miază-zi, but miază-zi ‘south’ has a totally different meaning. On the other hand, the initial a is specific to Romanian. Romanian amiază is an compound form from miez ‘middle, inner core, essence’ < PIE *medhi ‘middle’ (IEW, 706) prefixed by preposition *ad. PIE *d(h) turned into z, in Thraco-Dacian when followed by a front vowel (see Introduction). The same transformation is attested in some Thraco-Illyrian names from the last centuries of the 1st millenium BC, such Saba-ziosMenzanaMieza (see miez).

 

amịn (interj.) – amen.

Medio-Greek αμήν (Cioranescu, 248); cf. OCS aminŭ.

 

amịnte (Aromanian aminte) (n., fem.) – remembering, recollection.

It is a compound form from a and minte ‘mind’  < *ad-minte. There are no similar forms in Latin or Romnace languages. However, it has a close cognate in Lithuanian  atminti ‘to remember, memory’; cf. Old Prussian mintimai ‘to lie’ (I, pl.).

All these forms derive from PIE *men- ‘to think’, with nominal forms *menti, *mentu, *mņti, *mņto ‘mind, thinking’ (IEW, 726). Pre-Romanic origin (seeminte, minţi).

Derivatives: a(-şiaminti ‘to remember, to remind’, amintire ‘memory’.

 

amnạr (Aromanian mânear ‘flint steel’)  (n., neut.) – flint steel, tinder box.

Latin manuarius ‘manual’ < manus ‘hand’ (Puşcariu, 8; REW, 5332) or Latin *ignarium (Philippide, Principii, 46). Densusianu (Rom., 33, 274) thinks that it is a derivative of mână ‘hand’.

Philippide’s hypothesis is partially correct, although Latin *ignarium has no attestation and there are not any cognates in the Romance languages. In fact *ignarium would give in Romanian *imnar, not amnar. It rather derives from an older *ognari-s, itself from PIE *egnis, *ognis ‘fire’ (IEW, 293); cf. Sanskritagni ‘fire’, Latin ignis ‘id’, Lithuanian ugnis „id”, etc. T. Papahagi (696) thinks that Aromanian mânear derives from Latin manualis. In fact, it represents a contamination with mână. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivative: amnăruş.

 

amorţị (Aromanian amurţăscu, Megleno-Romanian amurţoş) (vb., IV) – 1. to become numb; 2. to hibernate.

Latin *ammortire (Puşcariu, 83; Candrea-Densusianu, 1178; REW, 186; Meyer, Alb. St., 4, 86); The Latin etymon has no attestation, although there are some similar forms in Romance languages, but they have different meanings; cf. Italian ammortire ‘to weaken, to break’, Provensal, French amortir. This verb seems to be a derivative of Romanian from mort ‘dead’, prefixed with a (see muri ‘to die’).

Derivatives: amorţireamorţitamorţeală.

 

amụrg (Aromanian amurg) (n., neut.)  – sunset, crepuscule.

A derivative of murg ‘dark bay, dark bay horse’ prefixed by a. Thraco-Illyrian origin (see murg).

Derivatives: a amurgiamurgeală.

 

amvọn (Aromanian amvun) (n., neut.) – pulpit.

Medio-Greek άμβων (Cioranescu, 259).

 

amuţị (Aromanian amuţăscu) (vb., IV) – to become mute, to become silent.

Latin *ammutire (Puşcariu, 86; Candrea-Densusianu, 1191; Cioranescu, 257). There are no similar forms in other Romance languages. It is derivative of Romanian from mut ‘mute’ (see mut).

Derivatives: amuţireamuţeală.

 

an (Aromanian an, Istro-Romanian on) (n., masc.) – year.

Latin annus ‘year’ (Puşcariu, 88; Candrea-Densusianu, 58; REW, 487; Cioranescu, 260). Panromanic.

Latin annus derives from PIE *en ‘year’ (IEW, 314); cf. Greek ένος’id’, Gothic athnan (dat. pl.), Oscan akenei < *at-nei, Lithuanian per-n-ai ‘last year’, Latvianperns ‘id’ (cf. Latin per-ennis).

 

anạfură (variant nafură, Aromanian anafură, Megleno-Romanian nafără) (n., fem.) – wafer, Eucharist bread.

Medio-Greek αναφορά (Murnu, 4; Cioranescu, 263).

 

anahorẹt (n., masc.) – hermit.

Medio-Greek αναχωρίτης < αναχώρειν „to distance oneself” (Cioranescu, 273); cf. French anachorète.

Derivative: anahoretic.

 

anạnghie (Aromanian ananghie) (n., fem.) – hardship, predicament.

Neo-Greek  ανάγκη (Gáldi, 146; Cioranescu, 264).

 

anạpoda (Aromanian anapuδa) – 1. crosspatched, crossgrained; 2. upside down.

Neo-Greek ανάποδα (Roesler, 564, Gáldi, 146; Cioranescu, 265).

 

anasậna (obs.) – by force, under compulsion.

Turkish anasını ‘mater eius’ (DAR; Cioranescu, 267). It is used only  in the expression cu anasâna ‘by force’.

 

anasọn (n., masc.) – anise (Pimpinella anisum).

Turkish anason < Medio-Greek άνισον (Roesler, 584; Şăineanu, II, 20; Cioranescu, 268); cf. Bulgarian, Serbian anason.

 

anatẹmă (Aromanian anatima, Megleno-Romanian natima) (n., fem.) – anathema.

Medio-Greek ανάθημα (Murnu, 4; Cioranescu, 270).

Derivatives: a anatemizaanatemizare.

 

angarạ (Aromanian angărie) (obs.) (n., fem.) – 1. gratuitous service, compulsory service (hist.); 2. taxes, financial obligations.

Medio-Greek αγγαρεία (Meyer, 12; Cioranescu, 281); cf. Albanian ngherij, Bulgarian angarija, Polish angarya, Turkish angarya, Italian angheria, Frenchangarie, Spanish angaria.

 

andreạ (variants undreaîndrea) (n., fem.) – knitting needle.

Cioranescu (9060) thinks that it is variant of undrea, a derivative of îndrea ‘December’  from Andreas ‘Saint Andrew’ (Puşcariu, 832; Tiktin; Cioranescu, 4397), but it has the stress on the first syllable, while îndrea ‘knitting needle’ has the stress on the last syllable, but Cioranesci ignore these details; cf. AromanianAndreluşuAndreu ‘December’. Romanian andrea and undrea have nothing to do with  îndrea as the name of Saint Andrew, respectively. According to Reichenkron, Romanian  andrea derives from PIE *ardh- ‘stake’ (IEW, 63), a hypothesis rejected by Poghirc  (“O nouă teorie…?”, Limba română, 15, 5, 1967) and he argues that it derives from PIE *andher- ‘sharp tip, rod’ (IEW, 41) (see undrea). He seems to be correct. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

anghinạră (variant anghinare) (n., fem.) – artichoke.

Perhaps from Neo-Greek αγκινάρα (Gáldi, 148; Cioranescu, 285); cf. Albanian hinarë, Bulgarian anginar, Turkish enginar.

 

aninạ (Aromanian alin ‘to go up, to climb’) (vb., I) – to hang, to hang up.

Latin *anninare de la *ninna ‘swing’ (Puşcariu, 89; REW, 5817; Cioranescu, 291); cf. Provensal nina ‘to sleep’ (cf. Cioranescu). Neither Latin *anninare, nor *ninna are attested which were reconstructed from Provensal nina, a cognate of  Romanian nani ‘sleep’ (in children’s talk). On the other hand, these authors ignored Aromanian alin which contradicts their hypothesis.

Romanian anina seems to derive from PIE *ar- ‘to divide, to hang, to go up’ (IEW, 61); cf. Hittite arnumi ‘to bring’, Greek αρνυμαι ‘to go up, to reach out, to touch’, Armenian arnum ‘to take’. From this root derives Romanian atârna ‘to hang (up)’ as well. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: aninareaninătoare.

 

anọst (Aromanian anustu) (adj.) – colorless, insipid, boring.

Neo-Greek άνοστος (Gáldi, Les mots, 148; Cioranescu, 293).

 

antặrţ (adv.) (obs.) – two years ago.

Latin anno tertio (DAR; Cioranescu, 295) (see an, terţiu).

 

anterịu (Aromanian antiriu, Megleno-Romanian antiriia) (obs.) (n., neut.)  – 1. a pompous robe of the aristocracy; 2. surplice.

Turkish antari < Arabic antari (Şăineanu, II20; Meyer, 11; Cioranescu, 298); cf. Neo-Greek αντερίον, Albanian anderi, Bulgarian, Serbian anterija.

 

aolẹu (variant aoleo) (interj.) – ah!, oh dear!, oh my!

It is a contamiantion between au ‘ouch’ and văleu. Romanian văleu can be traced to PIE *ŭai-lo-s, a derivative of PIE *ŭai ‘woe’ (IEW (1110) (see vaivăleu). Pre-Roman origin.

 

apă (Aromanian apă, Megleno-Romanian apăapu, Istro-Romanian ape) (n., fem.) – 1. water; 2. body of water.

Latin aqŭa ‘water’ (Puşcariu, 91; Candrea-Densusianu, 62; REW, 570; Cioranescu, 316); cf. Italian aqua, Spanish agua, Portuguese agoa, Sardinian abba.

Latin aqua derives from PIE *akʷa ‘water, stream’ (IEW, 23); cf. Gothic ahwa,  Sanskrit ap-, apa, Avestan ap, Hittite ŭappe, OHG affa. There are many body of water names and place names in ancient Thraco-Illyrian, Italic and Celtic areas formed with the root  -apa (see Vinereanu, 2002, 52); cf. Zaldapa ‘a place in Scythia Minor’ (today’s Dobrogea region, Romania), Salapia ‘a city in Apulia’. In Gaul and Brittania; Geld-apaArn-apaLen-apaOl-epaMan-apiaAppa,Apava. In Pannonia, Apeva (cf. Holder, vol. 1). In Greece: Απια, Ινωπ, Απιδον ‘locality in Arcadia’ (Steph. Byz.), Απιδανος ‘locality in Tessalia’, Αναπος ‘river in Acarnania’ (Tucydides, 2, 82), as well as in Sicily (Tucydides, 6, 96, 3; 7, 78, 3; Diodor din Sicilia, 15, 13, 5, Tit. Liv. 24, 36, 2) Apsus ‘river in southern Illyria’ (see Krahe, ZONF, 20, 1931), Apila ‘small river in eastern Macedonia’, Colapis ‘river in southern Pannonia’, today Kulpa (see Strabon, 4, 207, 7, 314), in Dio Cassius (49, 37) Colapius, as well as tribe name Colapiani (Pliniu, 3, 147), the Pannonian tribe of Sirapilli (Plinius, 3, 147), as well as Μεσσαπιον όρος‘mountains in Beotia and Thracia’ and finally Messapion and Messapi.

I mention that Walde-Pokorny (1) reconstructs also PIE *ab- ‘water, body of water’ as well as PIE *ap- (IEW, 29), although Romanian apă may derive from PIE *aqʷa since in Thraco-Dacian and Romanian PIE * turned consistantly into a p when it was followed by a back vowel (see Introduction). Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: aparapăraieapătos, apos, apşoară, etc.

 

apărạ (Aromanian apăr, Istro-Romanian opăr) (vb., I) – to protect, to defend.

Latin apparare ‘to be ready, to prepare for’  < *ad-parare (Puşcariu, 93; Candrea-Densusianu, 63; REW, 534; Cioranescu, 318). There are similar Romance forms; cf. Italian apparare, Provensal apara, Spanish aparar which have the same meaning as in Latin. Romanian apăra is semantically incompatible with  Latinapparare and the other Romance forms, except for Calabrian  apparari ‘to put in a safe place’. Albanian mbroj ‘to protect, to defend’  is a cognate to this Romanian verb. They seem to derive from  a IE *pari > *pari-et ‘all around’ (cf. Walde; 2, 254) < PIE *per (IEW, 810); cf. Hittite pi-ir ‘house’, as well  as Thracian -para ‘city, fortress’ (see para¹, perete ‘wall’). Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: apărareapărătorapărătoareapărătură.

 

apăreạ (vb., II) – 1. to appear, to become visible; 2. to come out, to be published.

It is a derivative of părea ‘to seem’ (cf. Cioranescu, 320) prefixed with a or from Latin appārēre; cf. French apparaître ‘id’ (see părea).

Derivatives: aparentaparenţăapariţie.

 

apăsạ (vb., I) – 1. to press (hard), to push; 2 to stress; 3. to oppress.

Latin *appensare < pensare ‘to weigh’ (Philippide, Principii, 21; Puşcariu, 94; Candrea-Densusianu, 1349; REW, 544; Cioranescu, 324); cf. Spanish pesar, French peser. In Latin pensare, the nasal is an infix, since it is missing in other Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit a-piš ‘to press, to press hard’, Albanianpish ‘weight’, Albanian pesho ‘to weigh’, Welsh pwyso ‘to weigh’, pwysan ‘weigh’, Breton pouez ‘weight’,  poueza ‘to weigh’.

We may reconstruct a PIE *pes- ‘weight, to weigh, to press’ (see păs). It seems to be of Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: apăsareapăsatapăsător.

 

aplecạ (variant pleca, Aromanian aplecaplic ‘to suckle (a baby animal)’, Megleno-Romanian plec) (vb., I) – 1. to incline, to bend, to bow; 2. to subjugate; 3. to suckle (a baby animal).

Latin applicare ‘to affix, to attach, to steer’ (Puşcariu, 97; Pascu, I, 35; REW, 548; Cioranescu, 332); cf. Catalan aplegar, Spanish allegar, Portuguese achegar. Th meaning of the latin etymon is different.

In fact, it is a variant of pleca. Romanian plecaapleca should be associated with Latin plico ‘to bend, to pack’ from PIE *plek’- ‘to bend, a împleti’ (IEW, 834). Latin applico is a derivative plico, it was used till the end of the Republic (1st century, BC)  (cf. Glare, 152), afterwards it became obsolete. In other words, about 150 years before Romans set foot in Dacia.  I have to mention that derivatives of this Latin verb may be looked for only in the Iberian Peninsula, probably because the Iberian Peninsula was conquered in the 2nd century BC.

From apleca (pleca) there are a few derivatives such as plecăciune ‘(low) bow’ and plecătoare  ‘milking sheep’  > Hungarian pleketor ‘id’ as well as Ukrainianplekati ‘to suckle’. These forms should not be associated with  pleca ‘to go, to leave’ as most linguists do. It has a totally different origin (see pleca).

Derivatives: (a)plecăciuneaplecătură, (a)plecătoare „oaie cu miel”.

 

apocalịps (variant apocalipsă) – the biblical Revelation.

Medio-Greek αποκάλυψις (Cioranescu, 333) from Greek αποκαλύπτειν ‘to unveil’ < απο-, καλύπτειν ‘to cover, to hide’; cf. French apocalypse.

Derivatives: apocaliptic.

 

apọi (Aromanian apoiapoea, Megleno-Romanian napoinăpoipoia, Istro-Romanian napoi) (adv.) – then, afterwards.

Latin ad post (Puşcariu, 98; Candrea-Densusianu, 1423; REW, 195; Cioranescu, 335) which would give *apost in Romanian, not  apoi; cf. Italian poi ‘id’.

Romanian apoi should be associated to PIE *apo- ‘behind, back’ (IEW, 53); cf.  Sanskrit apo ‘id’, Greek άπω ‘id’, Hittite appa ‘behind, after, again’, Albanianpr-apë ‘behind, again’ (see înapoi ‘back, behind’). It seems to be of Traco-Illyrian origin.

 

apoplexịe (n., fem.) – stroke.

Neo-Greek αποπληξία ‘id’ (Cioranescu, 337) from Greek αποπλέσειν ‘to hit, to throw down’; cf. French apoplexie (since 18th century).

Derivative: apoplectic.

 

apọstol (n., masc.) – a disciple of Christ, apostle.

Medio-Greek απόστολος „envoy” (Murnu, 6; Cioranescu, 342), from αποστέλλειν „to send (someone)”.

Derivatives: apostolat, apostolicapostolicescapostoliceşteapostolie.

 

apostrọf (n., neut.) – apostrophy.

Greek απόστροφος (Gáldi, Les mots, 151) < αποστρέφειν „to give back” < στρέφειν „to return”; cf. French apostrophe (since 17th century; cf. Gáldi).

Derivatives: apostrofă „reprimand”, a apostrofa „to reprimand”.

 

apotẹcă (variants poticăaptecă) (dial., Trans.) (n., fem.) – pharmacy.

NHG Apotheke „farmacy” (Cioranescu, 6707) from Latin apotheca < Greek αποθήκη.

Derivatives: apotecarpotecăraş (variant poticarăş) „pharmacist”.

 

ạprig (adj.) – 1. fiery, ardent, impetuos; 2. harsh, severe; 3. greedy.

Latin apricus ‘exposed to sun’ (Hasdeu, Etym.; Cihac, 1, 24; Cioranescu, 347). Puşcariu (99) as well as REW (581) reject this hypothesis considering it of unknown origin. Authors of DAR derive it from Greek άρπαξ stingy, greedy’ which is a cognate of Romanian aprig, but not its etymon. There are cognates in a number of other Indo-European languages; cf. Gothic (faihufriks ‘avaricious, greedy’, Old Icelandic ferkr ‘greedy’, OHG freh ‘stingy’, Old English froec ‘greedy bold’, Polish pragnać ‘stingy, greedy’, all from PIE *preg- ‘greedy, harsh, vehement’ (IEW, 845). Again, in Romanian, the Proto-Indo-European root is prefix by a (ad) as in many other cases. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

aprịlie (n., masc.) – April.

Medio-Greek Απρίλιος (Cioranescu, 348); cf. OCS Aprili. It is a parallel form to prier which is much older (see prier).

 

aprịnde (Aromanian aprindu, Megleno-Romanian  prind,  Istro-Romanian aprindu) (vb., III) – 1. to kindle, to light; 2. to ignite, to set on fire; 3. to switch on; 4. to blush; 4. to be enthusiastic.

Latin *apprendere apprehendere ‘to understand, to catch’ (Şăineanu, Semasiol., 181; Puşcariu, 100; Candrea-Densusianu, 1448; REW, 554; Cioranescu, 349). The western Romance languages  kept the Latin meaning; cf. Italian apprendere ‘to learn’, French apprendre ‘id’, Spanish  apprender ‘id’.

This verb has a totally different meaning and it is not a real cognate of the western Romance forms. Therefore, it should be considered a derivative of prinde ‘to catch’, prefixed with a (ad) (see prinde).

Derivatives: aprindere, aprinzător.

 

aproạpe (Aromanian aproapea, Megleno-Romanian proapi, Istro-Romanian (a)prope) (adv.) – 1. close by, not far; 2. almost.

Latin ad prope (Puşcariu, 101; Candrea-Densusianu, 65; REW, 197; Cioranescu, 350). Latin prope < *proque (cf. Latin proximus).

Latin prope is a loanword from Osco-Umbrian where PIE *kʷe > pe, a phonological feature found in Thraco-Illyrian as well. The verb a (seapropia seem to be internal derivative of Romanian, since Latin appropiare is attested only in the Middle Ages to the ecclesiastic authors.

Derivatives: a apropiaapropiereapropiat.

 

aprọd (n., masc.) (obs.) – 1. young boyar (aristocrat) serving at the Court of the Romanian princes in the Middle Ages; 2. bailiff.

Hungarian apród ‘page’ < apró ‘small’ (Cihac, 2, 476; Cioranescu, 352).

 

apucạ (Aromanian apuc) (vb., I) – 1. to grab, to seize, to catch; 2. a pune mâna în grabă pe ceva; 3. to have known; 3. to begin, to start.

Latin occupare ‘to seize, to occupy, to attack’ (Cihac,1, 14) was rejected by Meyer-Lübke (Dacor., 4, 642; REW, 776). Latin aucupor ‘to go birdcatching, to pursue, to watch for’ (Burlă, St. Fil., 1880;  Puşcariu (103); REW, 776; Rosetti 1, 162) which is not better then the previous one, both phonologically and semantically.

Romanian apuca is a cognate of Latin apiscor ‘to reach for, to aquire’, but the derivation from apiscor is not possible. Both verbs derive from PIE *ap- ‘to grab, to catch’ (IEW, 50); cf. Hittite eipmi ‘to take, Sanskrit apnoti ‘to arrive at, to win’, Avestan apayeiti ‘to arrive at’, Greek απτω ‘to gather, to bind’, Tocharian Aoppaççi ‘skillfull, clever, ingenious’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: apucareapucatapucătorapucătură.

 

Ạpullum – a city in ancient Dacia, today Alba-Iulia

It is the Latin form of a Dacian *Aplo sau *Apl which seems to derive from PIE *albho- ‘white’ (IEW, 30); cf. Gallo-Roman Albion ‘Brittania’, Middle IrishAlbbu ‘Brittania’ (see alb).

 

apụne (Aromanian apun) (vb., III) – 1. to set (down), to go down; 2. to fade, to decline.

Latin apponere „to put near, to apply, to add” (Şăineanu, Semasiol., 181, Puşcariu, Candrea-Densusianu, 1462; REW, 551; Cioranescu, 356). The putative Latin etymon has a different meaning. However, Spanish ponerse el sol „to set down (about sun)” has the same meaning and similar form, but they cannot be derived from the same Vulgar Latin etymon, therefore Romanian apune seems to be an internal derivative of Romanian from pune „to put”, prefixed with a (see pune).

Derivatives: apunereapusapusean.

 

arạ (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian ar, Istro-Romanian oru) (vb., I) – to plough.

Latin arare ‘to plough’ (Puşcariu, 105; Candrea-Densusianu, 67; REW, 508; Cioranescu, 357); cf. Italian arare ‘id’, Spanish, Portuguese arar ‘id’.

The root is found in most Indo-European language groups; cf. Greek αρόω ‘to plough’, Middle Irish airim ‘to plough, to work’, Welsh arddu ‘to plough’, Lithuanian ariu ‘id’, Lithuanian arimas ‘ploughed field’, Gothic arjan ‘to plough’, OHG erran ‘id’, OCS orjoorati ‘id’,  Albabian arë ‘cultivated field’, arar‘ploughman’, Armenian araur ‘plough’, Lithuanian arklas ‘id’, Tocharian are ‘id’. All from PIE *ar(ə) ‘to plough’ (IEW, 62);

Derivatives: arăturăarătorarabil.

 

arababụră (variant harababură) (n., fem.) – disorder, scandal.

Turkish anababulla > Neo-Greek αλλαμπάμπολλα (DAR; Cioranescu, 358). However, similar forms are found in a series of European languages: cf. Medieval Latin baburra „madness, insanity”, Medio-Greek βαβοϋρα „id”, Italian (Venetian dialect) alabala „confusely”. All these forms seem to be of imitative origin.

 

arạc (variants harachărac, Aromanian harac) (n., masc.) – prop, stake.

Neo-Greek χαράκι ‘prop’ (Roesler, 586; Cioranescu, 360); cf. Turkish herek, Bulgarian harak.

 

arạmă (Aromanian aramă) (n., fem.) – copper.

Vulgar Latin *aramen < aeramen (Diez, Gramm., 2, 5; Puşcariu, 107; Candrea-Densusianu, 61; Rosetti, 2, 65; Cioranescu, 363); cf. Italian rame ‘copper’, Old French arain, Old Provensal, Catalan aram, Old Spanish arambre, as well as Albanian rem, Albanian aramë ‘copper’.

The root is found in many other Indo-European and Afrasian languages. The Eneolithic begun in eastern Anatolia in the 7th millennium, BC and spread into Balkan region and Europe. Orel (1995, 55) reconstructs a AA root *ariw ‘metal’; cf. Akkadian werueru ‘copper’. It seems to be of Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: a arămiarămirearămioarăarămăriearămiu etc.

 

arạp (variant harap, Aromanian arap, Megleno-Romanian rap) (n., masc.) – 1. Arab; 2. a dark complexion person.

Turkish arab ‘Arab’ (Şăineanu, II, 22; Cioranescu, 365); cf. Neo-Greek αράπες, Albanian arap, Bulgarian harap.

Derivatives: arăpescarăpimearăpoaicăarăpilă.

 

arat (Aromanian aratru) – plough (in Muscel region, only).

Latin aratrum ‘plough’ (Puşcariu, Dacor., 8, 324). From the same root derives Aromanian arător ‘ploughman’ which seems to derive from Latin aratorius (cf. Papahagi, 133). A Daco-Romanian dialectal form artor is attested in northern Moldova which cannot really derive from Latin aratrum. All these forms derive form. PIE *arətrom ‘plough’ (IEW, 62) (see ara).

 

arătạ (Aromanian arăt, Istro-Romanian arotu) (vb., I)  – 1. to show, to indicate 2. to present; 3. to look like; 4. to explain.

Latin *ad reputare (Hasdeu, 1557) or Latin *arrectare <  rectus ‘right, straight’ (Cihac, 1, 82). Latin *arratare (Candrea, Rom., 31, 301), but later Candrea (GS, 3, 423) renounced his hypothesis. Finally, from Latin ratare ‘to count, to determine’ (Cioranescu, 369), a derivative of  ratus ‘valid’, but Cioranescu’s hypothesis does not explain the presence of the initial a. None of these hypotheses can be accepted. All these “etymons” either  have no attestation or are not appropriate from a semantic or phonological point of view. However, there are cognates in other Indo-European languages; cf. Welsh arddangosfa ‘to show, to present’, arddangos‘show’, Irish no-radim ‘sage, wise man’,  Gothic rodian, NHG reden ‘to speak, to talk’, all from PIE *ar(e), arə- ‘to unite, to match, to talk, to show, to calculate’ (IEW, 55), with the formant dh: *aredh (IEW, 59). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: arătarearătosarătătorarătătură.

 

ạrbore (Aromanian arbure, Megleno-Romanian arbur, Istro-Romanian årbure) (n., masc.) – tree.

Latin arbor ‘tree’ (Puşcariu, 112; Candrea-Densusianu, 74; REW, 606); cf. Vegliote juarbul ‘tree’, Italian albero ‘id’, Corsican arburu, French, Catalan arbre, Spanish arbol, as well as Albanian arbur and OHG albar (cf. Ernout-Meillet, 56).

Walde-Hoffmann (1, 62) shows that Latin arbor derives from PIE *ardho-s ‘tree’. I have o to mention that PIE *d(h), after a lateral (r, l) turned into a b, a phenomenon found not only in Latin, but in Thraco-Dacian as well (see albievorbă). Romanian arbore is of Latin origin, but it is less usual than copac ‘tree’ (see copac).

Derivatives: arborescentarborescenţăarboricultură (modern loanwords), arboros.

 

arc (variant (dial.) harc, Aromanian arcu, Megleno-Romanian arc) (n., neut.) –  bow.

Latin arcus ‘bow’ (Puşcariu, 113; Candrea-Densusianu, 76; Cioranescu); cf. Spanish, Portuguese arco, Provensal, French arc, as well as Albanian ark (hark). The root is found in other Indo-European languages; cf. Umbrian arçlataf ‘arculatas (kind of pretzels)’, Gothic arhazna ‘bow’, Old English earh ‘arrow’, Greekάρκευθος ‘juniper’, Albanian arkitë ‘osier willow’ (see răchită), all from PIE *arqu- ‘bent, to bend’ (IEW, 67) or PIE *ħherk(h)ʷ/ *ħhark(h)ʷ(Bomhard&Kerns, 384). The Proto-Indo-European root reconstructed by Bomhard&Kerns exhibits initial laryngeals which seems to be preserved in some (conservative) Romanian and Albanian dialects.

Derivatives: arcaşarcuiarcuitarcuire.

 

arcạci (obs.) (n., masc.) – a fence separating sheep.

Turkish arkaç ‘id’ (Hasdeu, Etym.,1492). It seems to be of Indo-European origin, namely from PIE *arqu- ‘bent, to bend’ (IEW, 63) (see arcarcan).

 

arcạn (n., neut.) – lasso, shipknot rope.

Tatar arkan ‘lasso’ (Miklosich, Fremdw., 175; Cioranescu); cf. Turkish, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian arkan. Miklosich (Wander., 12) argues that Polish borrowed it from Romanian, but it seems that all these languages borrowed it from Romanian. The word seems to derive from the same PIE root *arqu- ‘bent, to bend’ (IEW, 67) (see arc).

 

ạrde (Aromanian ardu, Megleno-Romanian ard, Istro-Romanian årdu) (vb., III) – to burn, to be hot.

Latin *ardĕre (instead of ardēre) (Puşcariu, 114; Candrea-Densusianu, 78; REW, 620; Cioranescu, 381); cf. Vegliote ardar, Italian ardere, Provensal, Old Frenchardre.

Latin ardēre derives from PIE *as-, azd-, azg(h)- ‘a arde’ (IEW, 68). The root is found in many other Indo-European languages. It means ‘altar’ in Italic languages and ‘ash’ in most other languages.

Derivatives: arderearsurăardei etc.

 

Ardeạl  – Transylvania (in Romanian).

It was associated with Hungarian erdely ‘forest’ > Hungarian Erdely ‘Transylvania’.

However, there are about 40 other place-names and river names all over Romania  similar to it. Here are some of them: ArdelArdaloaia, ArdeleiArdelion,ArdeliaArdeoani, ArdotaArdeu, Arduzăl etc. (cf. N. Drăganu, Românii…, 1933), but all these forms cannot derive from Hungarian erdely, since there was no language contacts between the Romanians living in these regions and Hungarians. There is no doubt that the association between Ardeal and Hungarian erdely is due to folk etymology. Therefore, the Magyars associated the Romanian name of this province with a word already existing in their language.

Since the region is a plateau it seems to derive from PIE *er(ə)d „tall, to wake up, to raise” (IEW, 339); cf. Avestan ərədva ‘tall’, latin arduus ‘tall abrupt’, GaulishArduenna (silva), Old Irish ard ‘height’, Irish aird ‘region, territory’, Albanian rit ‘to wake up. From the root derives the Romanian verb a radical ‘to lift, to raise’ (see ridica).

Derivatives: ardeleanardeleancăardelenescardeleneşte.

 

arẹndă (arindă (Trans., Olt.), orândă (Mold.) (n., fem.) – lease, rent.

Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian arenda ‘id’ (Cihac, 2, 3; Hasdeu, Etym.,1540); cf. Hungarian arenda ‘id’. However, the word is found in a few Romance languages as well, such as Sardinian arrendare ‘to lease, to rent’, Spanish arrendar ‘id’. Therefore, Cioranescu (383) believes that the Romanian word derives from a Late Latin *arenda. Furthermore, there are similar forms in other Romance languages, such as Old French rente (12th century), Provensalrenta (renda), Spanish renta, Potuguese renda, Italian rendita, cognates to Latin reddoreddere ‘to give back, to return’, redditio ‘giving back’. The Latin verb derives from an Old Latin form *rendo, *rendere. In other words, these Romance forms cannot derive directly from Latin reddoreddere. They come from some other languages and dialects from the Roman Empire. They all these derive from PIE *rent- ‘wealth, property’ (IEW, 865); cf. Sanskrit ratnam ‘posessions, proprety’, Irish ret ‘possessions’. The Slavic languages and Hungarian  borrowed it from Romanian. Pre-Roman origin.

Derivatives: a arendaarendarearendaşarendăşiţăarendăşiearendăşesc.

 

arẹte (dial.) (Aromanian areteareati, Megleno-Romanian retiareati, Istro-Romanian arete) (n., masc.)  – ram.

Latin aries, -etem ‘ram’ (Puşcariu, 115; Candrea-Densusianu, 81; REW, 645; Cioranescu, 386). Latin arietem would have been *ariete in Romanian. The phonetics was discussed by Rosetti (1, 51).

 

argăsị (Aromanian arγăsescuarγăsire) (vb., III) – to tan (a hide or skin).

Neo-Greek αργάζω ‘to tan’ (aorist of αργασα) (DAR; Cioranescu, 388); cf. Bulgarian argasvam, Albanian argoshë ‘skin irritation’. It is not attested in ancient Greek, therefore Neo-Greek borrowed it from Aromanian. On the other hand, Albanian form is inherited. The verb derives from PIE *areq- ‘to protect, to defend, to seal, to close’ (IEW, 65); cf. Greek αρκέω ‘to protect’, Latin arceo ‘to seal, to close’. Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: argăsireargăsitargăsealăargăsitor.

 

argạt (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian argat) (n., masc.) – servant, helper.

Neo-Greek αργάτης < Greek εργάτης ‘worker’ (Roesler, 564; Murnu, 6); cf. Albanian argat, Turkish irgat, Bulgarian argatin, Serbo-Croatian argat. Neo-Greek origin.

Derivatives: argăţela argăţiargăţescargăţime.

 

argeạ (obs.) (n., fem.) – 1. niche, recess (in the wall); 2. an underground room of the traditional houses.

Dacian *argilla (Hasdeu, Col. lui Traian, 1873, 232; Etym. 1577-9; Densusianu, Filologie, 449; Hlr., 38; GS, 7, 86; Philippide, Principii, 33, 148; Iordan, Dift. 58). Hasdeu associates it with Greek άργιλλα ‘underground house’ and Old Macedonian άργελλα ‘bathroom’.

Jokl (IF, 44, 13) and Puşcariu (Lr., 237) consider that the Old Macedonian is a loanword from Cimmerian άργιλλα; cf. Albanian ragëlia. According to the ancient Greek and Byzantine authors Cimmerians were a Geto-Dacian tribe who lived on the northern shore of the Black Sea. Brâncuş (VALR, 30) and I.I. Russu (Elem., 133) associate it with PIE *areg- ‘to close’ (IEW, 64); cf. Sanskrit argala-h ‘bolt’.

 

Ạrgeş – river in southern Romania.

It is attested to many ancient and Byzantine authors over the centuries since Herodotus, under slightly different forms: Ordessos (Herodotus), Ordesos (Plinius), where g is spelled as d, since ancient Greek and Latin did not have this sound. Later on, we have ArgesiosArgisios (Porphyrogenitus, beginning of 10th century AD). The sufix -sio-s explain the sound ş (sh) of the modern form, since s followed by i gave ş in Romanian (see şapteşarpe), a phenomenon found in other Romanian river names (see ArieşCrişMureşTimiş).

This river name seems to derive from PIE *ar(e)g’-, arg’- ‘white, bright’ (IEW, 64) (see argint). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: Curtea-de-Argeşargeşeanargeşeancă.

 

argịnt (Aromanian arzintrăzint, Istro-Romanian arzint) (n., masc.) – 1. silver; 2. money (pl.).

Latin argentum ‘silver’ (Puşcariu, 116; Candrea-Densusianu, 82; REW, 640; Cioranescu, 393).

The root is attested in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit árjunah ‘white, bright, pure’, Greek άργυρος ‘silver’, Oscan arageto- ‘id’, Albanianargjent ‘id’, Irish argat ‘silver, money’, Old Welsh argnt ‘silver’, Middle Cornish argans ‘id’, Breton archant ’id’, Armenian arcath ‘id’.

The Pictish personal name Argento-coxos ‘silver leg (or hip)’ (cf. Vendryes), indicates that the Celtic forms are not of Latin origin. All these forms derive from PIE *ar(e)g’-, arg’- ‘white, bright’ (IEW, 64). It seems be of Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: argint-viu ‘quick silver, mercury’, a argintaargintareargintatargintiuargintarargintărieargintosargintiu.

 

arhạnghel (Aromanian arhanghil, Megleno-Romanian ranghilă) (n., masc.) – archangel.

Medio-Greek αρχάγγελος (Cioranescu, 396) from άρχος ‘leader’ < άρχειν ‘to be the first’; cf. OCS archangelŭ.

 

arhimandrịt (n., masc.) – archimandrite, the leader of an Orthodox monastery.

Medio-Greek αρχιμανδρίτης < (Murnu, 7; Cioranescu, 399) from άρχος ‘leader’ and μάνδρα ‘monastery’.

Derivatives: arhimandrie ‘the title of archimandrite’.

 

arịci (Aromanian ariciuariţ, Megleno-Romanian ariţ) (n., masc.) – hedgehog.

Latin ericius hedgehog’ (Diez, 1, 349; Puşcariu, 118; Candrea-Densusianu, 85; Cioranescu, 404); cf. Italian riccio ‘id’,  Sardinian rizzu ‘id’, Spanish erizo, as well as Albanian irik (urik) ‘id’.

Derivatives: aricioaicăariceală.

 

ạrie (Aromanian ariear, Megleno-Romanian arγie) (n., fem.) – threshing floor (ground).

Latin area (Puşcariu, 119; Candrea-Densusianu, 86; REW, 626; Cioranescu, 406). Pan-romanic; cf. Albanian arë ‘id’.

 

arịn (variants anin, arine) (n., masc.) – alder tree (Alnus glutinosa).

Latin *alninus < alnus ‘alder tree’ (Hasdeu, Etym.,1205; Densusianu, Hlr., 119; Puşcariu, 90;  REW, 375a; Cioranescu, 290). The putative Vulgar Latin etymon is not attested and it seems that ther are no other Romance derivatives from this “etymon”. On the other hand, the root is found in many Indo-European languages; cf. Gothic *alisa, OHG ellira ‘alder tree’, Old English alor ‘id’, Lithuanian, Latvian alksnis ‘id’,  Old Prussian alskande ‘id’, Gaulish *alisa (attested in the place name Alisia, where Julius Caesar defeated the Gaulish forces led by Vercingetorix, in 52 BC). From all these forms one may reconstruct a PIE *alisno-s ‘alder tree’. In Romanian (and Thraco-Dacian) intervocalic l turned into a r, while s was dropped, therefore arin. The variant anin is a variant of arin. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: arinişarinişte.

 

arịnă (dial.) (Aromanian arină) (n., masc.) – sand.

Latin arēna ‘sand’ (Puşcariu, 119; Candrea-Densusianu; 87; REW, 630; Philippide, II, 632; Cioranescu, 408). Panromanic; cf. Albanian rerë ‘id’. The form in found in western Romania, Macedonia and Transnistria (outside Romania’s borders).

Derivatives: ariniş ‘desert’, arinos ‘sandy’.

 

arịpă (variant areapă, Aromanian arpă, Megleno-Romanian iaripăreapă) (n., fem.) – wing.

Cihac (2, 476) thinks that it derives from Hungarian rop ‘flight, wing’, but the derivation is not possible, while Roesler believes it sas borrowed from Greek ρική, but the word does not seem to exist in Greek. On the other hand, κ could not turn into a p in Romanian. Later there were proposed several Latin etymologies, also unacceptable. From Latin alipes < ali pes ‘wing foot’ (Densusianu, Hlr., 30), a hypothesis rejected by Puşcariu (123), who says that only the first part could be admitted (cf. Latin ala ‘wing’). The authors of DAR propose Latin alapa ‘slap’ much less acceptable, but accepted by REW (319). One may propose a non-attested Vulgar Latin *alepa, but apparently there are no cognates in any Romance language except maybe for Italian (Calabrian dialect) alapa ‘the blade of a water meal wheel’.  On the other hand, there is no doubt that Romanian aripă is a cognate of Latin ala, but the derivation is not possible. In other words, Romanian aripăderives from an older *alepa >  areapă > aripă. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: aripioarăa înaripaînaripat.

 

armạş (n., masc.) – a third rank aristocrat in older Romanian hierarchy, commander of the artillery.

A derivative of  armă ‘weapon’. From Romanian it was borrowed into Hungarian ármas; cf. Albanian armë ‘weapon’ (see armă).

Derivatives: armăşelarmăşoaiearmăşie etc.

 

ạrmă (Aromanian armă, Istro-Romanian orme) (n., fem.) – weapon.

Latin arma ‘weaponry, weapon’ (REW, 651); cf. Irish arm, considered to be a loan-word from Latin according to Vendryes (A-89). The term is also found in Homeric Greek άρμα, -τος ‘wagon, car’, but especially ‘war chariot’. The noun armosa ‘army’ is found on the Sinaia inscriptions several times meaning ‘army’ which is a cognate of the Greek form. In Mycenian a-mo/ar-mo  means wheel. Beekes shows that the Greek noun derives from a PIE *h2er- ‘join’ (GED, I, 133).

Derivatives: a armaarmarearmatăarmamenta înarmaînarmare etc.

 

armăsạr (variant harmăsar) (n., masc.) – stallion.

Latin equus admissarius ‘stallion’ (Schuchardt, Vokal., 1, 141; Philippide, 2, 361; Puşcariu, 126; Candrea-Densusianu, 93; REW, 177; Cioranescu, 414). One cannot explain the r in the first syllable which is also present, in the Albanian cognate harmeshuar (harmeshor) ‘stallion’, which has been elided in Sardinianammesardzu ‘id’.  From Romanian it was borrowed into Ukranian harmasar (Miklosich, Wander., 16; Candrea, Elemente, 404).

On the other hand,, the dialectal form armig  (harmig) ‘id’ is considered by Hasdeu (EtymMagnum…) to be of Couman, Pecheneg or Avar origin (cf. Chagataikargamaq ‘thoroughbred horse’) influenced by admissarius. The initial h in Albanian and some Romanian dialects cannot be explained as well. Romanianarmăsar (harmăsar) may be a contamination of Latin admissarius with armig which seems to be of Thraco-Illyrian origin.

 

arnịci (n., neut.)  dyed cotton thread or fabric.

Cf. Serbo-Croatian jarenica, Bulgarian arnič, Hungarian arninci. Cioranescu (420) considers it of unknown origin, but he also states that it might be a defromation of urşinic ‘velvet’. From Romanian it was borowed into Bulgarian arnič (Capidan, Raporturile, 220) and Hungarian arninc (Candrea, Elemente, 406). Unknown origin.

 

arọmă (Aromanian arumă) (n., fem.) – aroma, fragrance, perfume.

Medio-Greek άρωμα (Roesler, 664; Murnu, 7; Cioranescu, 421).

Derivatives: aromaticaromealăaromatiza.

 

arpacạş (n., neut.) – pearl barley.

Hungarian árpa kása, árpa ‘barley’ and kása ‘groats’ (DAR); cf. Turkish arpa ‘orz’, Slovakian arpakaša.

 

arpagịc (n., neut.) – 1. chive, scallion; 2. bulb for planting.

Turkish arpacik (sogani) ‘(onion like) small barley’ (Cihac, II, 544); cf. Serbian arpagĭk.

 

arsụră (n., fem.) – 1. burn, scald; 2. heartburn.

Latin arsura (Puşcariu, 130, REW; 682, Cioranescu, 431); cf. Italian, Provensal, Catalan arsura, Spanish asura.

It is attested in Medieval Latin arsura ‘fire, incendiu’ (cf. Niermeyer, 82). De Mauro-Mancini (151) from which derives Italian arsura ‘drought’ from Medieval Latin arsura(m). There was no contacts between Romanian and Medieval Latin. One should consider  arsură a derivative of Romanian from a arde ‘to burn’ (seearde).

 

arşịc (Aromanian aşic) (n., neut.) (obs.) – knucklebone, dib.

Turkish aşik „anklebone, knucklebone” (Şăineanu, 2, 26; Cioranescu, 429); cf. Albanian a(s)ik, Bulgarian asik, Serbo-Croatian arsik.

 

ạrşiţă (n., fem.) – 1. intense/scorching heat, dog days; 2. fever.

Latin *arsicia (Puşcariu, 129; Candrea-Densusianu, 80; Cioranescu, 430); cf. Italian arsiccio ‘burned place’. The meaning of Romanian and Italian forms are different. It seems that it is a derivative of Romanian language from arde ‘to burn’, as it is the case of Italian (see arde).

 

arţạg (variant harţag) (n., neut.) – quarrelsomeness, peevishness.

Hungarian harcag (Philippide, Principii, 150; Cioranescu, 433). I could not verify Hungarian harcag, although there is a Hungarian harc ‘fight, conflict’, which is the same with Romanian harţă ‘skirmish, quarrel’, a hărţui ‘to bother, to harrass’ (ignored by Philippide), similar to French harasser (cf. English to harass). The noun arţag is a derivative of  harţă (see harţă) which is of imitative origin (cf. hâr). The Hungarian form seems to be a loanword from Romanian. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivative: arţăgos.

 

arţạr (n., masc.) – mapple tree (Acer platanoides).

Latin acer ‘mapple tree’ (Puşcariu, 131; REW, 91). The derivation is not possible. Instead, Cioranescu (434) proposes a Vulgar Latin *arcearius, but one cannot accept his hypothesis since there are not other cognates in the Romance languages deriving from this etymon. G. Ivănescu shows that it derives from PIE *akar(n)os or rather *alkarnos (arkarnos) (Thraco-Dacica, 1976; cf. ILR); cf. NHG Ahorn ‘mapple tree’, as well as German northern dialects Alhorn,Elhorn and Sanskrit akráh „id”.

He argues that arţar cannot derive from Latin acer or *arciarum, *arcearius because they would give *aciar or *arciar, but not arţar. Therefore, he considers it to be of Thraco-Dacian origin. Besides, the lateral r, in front of ţ cannot be explained. Furthermore, PIE k’ folowed by a front vowel turned into a ț as in other Romanian words of Thraco-Dacian origin (see ţep).

 

aruncạ (Aromanian arucarucare, Megleno-Romanian runcrucari) (vb., I) – 1. to throw (away), to hurl; 2. to drop, to drop off.

Latin runcare ‘to weed’ (Cihac, 1, 17; Pascu, 1, 62; REW, 2908; Cioranescu, 443); cf. Italian arroncare ‘to weed’. The meaning of arunca is somehow closer to Latin ruo ‘to fall, to rush, to hurry; to hurl down’, but ruo cannot be the etymon of Romanian arunca.  However, there are cognates in a few other Indo-European languages; cf. Latvian ruket ‘to snatch, to uproot’, Irish urchar ‘to throw’, Sanskrit luñcati ‘to uproot, to peel off’, all from PIE *reu-, *reuk- ‘to uproot, to throw away’ (IEW, 869). Thrace-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: aruncarearuncataruncătoraruncătură.

 

arvụnă (Aromanian arvună) (n., fem.) – earnest (money).

Greek αρραβών > Latin arr(h)a(bo) (Cioranescu, 446); cf. Italian arra, French arrhes, Spanish arras, Neo-Greek αρραβώνας.

Phonologically, Romanian arvună cannot derive from Latin. It is closer to the Greek forms, but it can be only a loanword from Medio-Greek or Neo-Greek, when β was pronounced v. According to Boisacq (82), Greek αρραβών is a loanword from Hebrew erābōn ‘pawn, deposit’. From Romanian it was borrowed into Ukrainian arawona (Miklosich, Wander., 12).

Derivatives: a arvuniarvunire.

 

ascẹt (variants aschitaschet (obs.))  (n., masc.) – 1. hermit, anchorite; 2. recluse.

Medio-Greek ασκητής (Cioranescu, 455) from Greek ασκέσις ‘exercise’ < Greek ασκεϊν ‘to practice, to exercise’, attested since 17th century.

Derivatives: asceticascetismasceză.

 

ascultạ (Aromanian ascultu, Megleno-Romanian acult, Istro-Romanian ascutu) (vb., I) – 1. to listen to; 2. to obey; 3. to believe; 4. to examine.

Vulgar Latin *ascultare < auscultare ‘to listen carefully’ (Puşcariu, 138; Candrea-Densusianu, 95; REW, 802; Cioranescu, 457); cf. Italian ascoltare, Old Frenchascouter, Old Spanish ascuchar.

Latin auscultare derives from PIE *kleu-, klu- ‘to hear’, kleu-to-m ‘hearing’, kluti, klutos ‘famous’ (IEW, 605) found in most Indo-European language groups. Latin auscultare seems to be the result of a contamination with ausis ‘ear’ with an older *kluto > *culto, *cultare. Latin origin.

Derivatives: ascultareascultatascultător etc.

 

ascụnde (Aromanian ascundu, Megleo-Romanian şcund, Istro-Romanian ascundu) – 1. to hide, to conceal; 2. to cover, to mask.

Latin abscondere ‘to conceal’ (Puşcariu, 139; Candrea-Densusianu, 97; REW, 41); cf. Italian ascondere ‘id’, Old Provensal, Old French esconder, Catalanascoudir, Old Spanish ascouder.

Latin abscondere is a derivative of condo, -ere ‘to construct, to hide’ from PIE *(s)keu-, (s)keud- ‘to cover, to hide’ (IEW, 952). The root is found also in Germanic languages; cf. Old English hydan ‘to hide’, Old Icelandic skaud ‘sheath’.

Derivatives: ascundereascunsascunzişascunzătoareascunzător.

 

ascuţị (vb., IV) – 1. to sharpen; 2. to grind, to whet.

Latin acutus ‘sharp’ (Cihac, 1, 18) or Latin *excotire < cos, cotem ‘flintstone’ (Puşcariu, 140; Densusianu, Rom. 33, 274; REW, 2275; Cioranescu, 459); cf. Italianaguzzare ‘to sharpen’, Spanish aguzar, Old Porvensal, Portuguese agusar, French aiguisser < Latin *acutiare ‘to sharpen’, as well as Old Irish acuit ‘sharp’. Corominas (1, 80) considers that the Spanish form derives from a Vulgar Latin *acutiare > acutus. De Mauro-Mancini (51) also believes that Italian aguzzarederives from the same Vulgar Latin etymon *acutiare.

Romanian ascuţi does not derive from *excotire, but from something similar *acutiare, which is the etymon of the other Romance forms. There is a cognate in  Albanian cokas ‘to sharpen’. It belongs to a larger Romanian word family which includes cuţit ‘knife’ and cute ‘whetstone’ (see cuţitcute)

Derivatives: ascuţealăascuţimeascuţiturăascuţitorascuţitoareascuţiş.

 

asemănạ (vb., I) – 1. to be alike, to resemble; 2. to compare.

Latin *assimilare (Diez, Gramm. 1, 189; Puşcariu, 134, Cioranescu, 461). In fact, Latin assimilare is not attested in (classical) Latin, only assimulare ‘to resemble, to imitate’ and simulare ‘to imitate, to pretend’ which makes a Latin origin less plausible.

In fact, the Romanian verb is a derivative of samă ‘reckoning, account, kind, like, a number of, etc.’ which is extremely productive in Romanian, with older meanings such as ‘a number of, same number as’ from PIE *som-o ‘same, together’ (IEW, 903). The root is found in many Indo-European language groups (seesamă (seamă), semăna). Pre-Roman origin.

Derivatives: asemănarea asemuiasemenea, asemănător etc.

 

asfinţị  (variant sfinţi) (vb., IV) – 1. to set, to go down (about sun or other heavely bodies); 2. (fig.) to be on the wane, to be in decay.

From sfânt ‘holy, saint’ (Miklosich, Slaw. Elem. 44, Cihac) or Latin *affingere < effingere ‘to shape, to fashion, to portray’ (Cioranescu, 465). The meaning of this Latin “etymon” is completely different and, therefore, Cioranescu’s hypothesis cannot be accepted. However, the meaning of asfinţi may be compared to the Neo-Greek expression ήλιος βασιλείει ‘sun is setting/is going down’ (cf. Cioranescu), where the verb βασιλείν is a derivative of  βασιλέος ‘king, emperor’. In other words, the verb may be associated with  sfânt . Therefore, the meaning of this verb might be in connection with some old pagan beliefs associating sunsetting and dying on one hand and to be become holy/immortal, on the other. According to Jordanes (Getica), Dacians venerated their (religious) leaders such as Zamolxis, Deceneus and others, as prophets during their lives and they were considered gods after their death. In fact, sfinţi means both ‘to set, to go down (about the heavenly bodies)’ and ‘to hallow, to sanctify, canonize, to consecrate’  (see sfânt). On the other hand, it is possible that this verb may have a different origin which one cannot grasp at this moment. Possible Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: asfinţireasfinţitasfinţită.

 

asiạtic (variants asiaticescasian (obs.) (adj.; n. masc.) – Asian.

Latin asiaticus ‘Asian’. The form asiaticesc is attested in the 16th century.

 

asịn (variants asenasân (obs.), istr. ąsir) (n., masc.) – donkey.

Latin asinus ‘ass, donkey’ (Puşcariu, 135; Candrea-Densusianu, 100; REW, 704). It is possible that the form has been remodeled later. It is also possible to be a loanword from 15-16 centuries. In fact, asin is a bookish word, rarely used in everyday language. It seems it was introduced in Romanian through the religious literature. The usual word for ‘donkey’ in Romanian is măgar (see măgar).

According to Walde-Hoffmann (1, 72-73), Latin asinus is a loanword from Thraco-Illyrian which borrowed it from a Middle East language. The root is found in many different languages; cf. Turkish, Tatar esek ‘donkey’, Basque astakilo ‘donkey’, astoeme ‘she-donkey’, Hebrew aton ‘she-donkey’.

 

asmuţị (variants a(s)muţasumuţisumuţa) (vb., IV) – to hound at, to urge (on), to set (on).

Vulgar Latin ex-*mucciare (REW, 5707; Candrea-Densusianu, 1197).  Needless to say that this hypothesis makes no sense and it should be rejected. There is no attestation of this latin “verb” or something similar to it and there are no other cognates in any of the Romance languages. However, this verb seems to have a cognate in Lithuanian atsmunti ‘to reject, to chase back’. The prefix at-, in Lithuanian, derives from PIE *ad, and it explains the initial a of the Romanian form which derives from an older *ad-smutire. There are other such parallels between Lithuanian and Romanian (see aminte). Both Romanian and Lithuanian forms seem to derive from PIE *smeit-, smit- ‘to throw’ (IEW, 968); cf. Latin mitto, -ere ‘to let go, to let run away, to send’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: asmuţireasmuţit.

 

aspịdă (n., fem.) – 1. asp; 2. nagging woman.

Medio-Greek ασπίδα (Cioranescu, 478); cf. OCS aspida, Spanish aspid, French aspic.

In fact, the real Greek noun is ασπίς, -ιδος ‘asp’, considered of obscure origin by Boisacq (90), but he associates it with Hebrew śepa ‘asp’. Corominas (1, 382) derives Spanish aspid from Latin aspis, itself of Greek origin. It may have been a Balkan word, found in Greek and Thraco-Illyrian as well, which spread later to Latin and other European languages.

 

ạspru (Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian aspru) (adj.) – 1. hard, rough. 2. shaggy; 3. severe, stern; 4. brisk.

Latin asper ‘rough, bitter, austere’ (Puşcariu, 146; Candrea-Densusianu, 191; REW, 768; Cioranescu, 479); cf. Italian aspro, Provensal, Catalan aspre, Frenchapre, Spanish, Portuguese aspero, as well as Albanian ashpër ‘id’.

Derivatives: a (seaspriasprimeasprealăa (seînăspriînăspreală etc.

 

astâmpărạ (variant a stâmpăra) (vb., I) – 1. to quiet, to calm down; 2. to quench.

Latin *extemperare (Densusianu, Rom., 33; Puşcariu, 152; REW, 3082; Rosetti, 1, 163; Cioranescu, 486).

Vulgar Latin *extemperare is not attested (only tempero, -are ‘to abstain, to be moderate, to mix properly’ which is a cognate of astâmpărạ. There are no other cognates in Romance languages from *extemperare. The prefix ex- in front of some verbs usually change the meaning or in some cases it gives the opposite meaning. In fact, in other Indo-European languages there are cognate with an intial (a)s-. Romnaian astâmpăra is a derivative of a stâmpăra.

Benveniste (Mél. Vendryes) associates Latin tempero with Sanskrit (aor.) astambhit and Greek  στεμβω ‘to shake, to ill-treat’ and proposes PIE *(s)temb(h) ‘to heat, to break by hitting’ as a common root and Boisacq (909) reconstructs PIE *stemb-, stembh- for the Greek form associating it with OHG stamfon and Old Norse stappa ‘to tread under foot, to crush’ and I would add English to stamp (under one’s foot). In Romanian there is the expression ‘a stâmpăra focul’ by crushing (partially) the embers. It is obvious that Romanian astâmpăra is cognate with all these forms. Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: astâmpărareastâmpărastâmpăratneastâmpărat, etc.

 

ạstfel (adv.) – 1. thus, in this way, like this; 2. therefore, hence.

A compound form from ast (ăst) şi fel (see fel).

 

astrahạn (variant astracan) (n., masc.) – Astrak(h)an fur.

From Russian Astrahan ‘city and province in Russia’.

 

astrăgạci (n., neut.) a shoemaker’s tool used to stretch the sole shoes and boots and to turn over the bootleg.

Latin extrahere ‘to drag out, to release’ (Philippide, ZRPh., 1907, 294; Pascu, Suf., 198) or Hungarian esztergázni ‘to return’ (Scriban; Cioranescu, 489); cf. Bulgarian stragač. Cioranescu argues that the original Hungarian etymon was contaminated with Romanian trăgaci ‘trigger, cock’, but it does not make any sense. In fact, both these nouns have similar from meaning and derive from a trage.  Regarding Latin extrahere, the Latin laryngeal h could not turn into a g, in Romanian.  In Roman Imperial time, the laryngeal was not pronounced anymore, facts ignored by these authors. On the other hand, a Hungarian etymon could not explain the Bulgarian form which is clearly a loanword from Romanian. Both these nouns astrăgaci and trăgaci are derivatives of a trage ‘to pull, to draw’ (seetrage).

 

astrolạb (n., neut.) – astrolab.

Greek αστρολάβοςαστρολάβιον (Gáldi, Les mots, 155) from άστρος ‘star’, λαμβάνειν ‘to catch, to take’; cf. French astrolabe. Attested since 17th century.

 

astrolọg (n., masc.) – astrologer.

Greek αστρολόγος (Gáldi, Les mots, 155) from astro- and < γέγειν; cf. French astroloque. Attested since 17th century.

Derivatives; astrologhicescastrologicastrologie.

 

astronọm (n., masc.) – astronomer.

Greek αστρονόμος (Gáldi, Les mots, 155) din astro- (v. astro-), νόμος ‘law, custom’ < νέμειν ‘to control, to dominate’; cf. French astronome (v. neam¹, noimă). Attested since 17th century.

Derivatives: astronomicescastronomicastronomie.

 

astrucạ – 1. to bury (obs.); 2. to cover.

Vulgar Latin *astru(i)care < astruere ‘to build near, to add’ (Meyer-Lübke, ZRPh., 27, 253; Puşcariu, 153; Candrea-Densusianu, 106; REW, 748; Rosetti, I, 163).

The meaning of the putative Latin etymon is quite different and there no any Romance cognates. Latin astruo is a derivative of struo ‘to pile up, to build’ from PIE *ste-, stre-, streu- ‘to stretch, to spread’ (IEW, 1029); cf. Avestan star ‘shelter, bed’, Umbrian struçla as well as  Latin struix ‘pile’. The meaning of  the derivative astrucământ ‘cover, blanket’ (dial., Banat) is closer to the one of the original root. It seems to be of Thraco=Dacian origin.

Derivatives: astrucareastrucat.

 

astupạ (Aromanian astup, Megleno-Romanian (a)stup, (h)ăstup) (vb., I) – 1. to stop up, to close up, to obturate; 2. to cork.

Latin *adstuppare stuppa ‘coarse hemp or flax’ (Philippide, Principii, 99; Puşcariu, 154; REW, 8333; Cioranescu, 495). Latin stuppa is considered to be a loanword from Greek στύππη; cf. Albanian shtupë ‘coarse fibers’.  The root is found in other  Indo-European language groups. In Germanic languages; cf. Dutchstoppen, Old English, OHG stopfon are all from Vulgar Latin *stuppare. Other cognates in Celtic languages: cf. Breton stouva ‘to close, to stop up, to cork’, Breton stouv ‘cork’ come closer to Romanian astupa as well as Hittite ištap ‘to cover, to close’. All these forms seem to derive from PIE *(s)teup- ‘to push, to thrust, to close up’ (IEW, 1034).  Romanian dop ‘cork’ is related to these forms, but it has no c(see dop). To sum up, the verb astupa may be either a derivative of Romanian language from Latin stuppa or rather of Thraco-Illyrian origin since stuppa existed previously in Balkan languages. I should mention that Albanian shtupë is not of Latin origin due to the fact Latin s remains s in Albanian, only the Proto-Indo-European *s turned into sh in Albanian.

Derivatives: astupăturăastupătoareastupătorastupuşdestupa.

 

asudạ (Aromanian asud, Megleno-Romanian sud) (vb., I) – 1. to sweat, to perspirate; 2. to steam, to become damp.

Latin *assudare (Puşcariu, 155; Candrea-Densusianu, 107; REW, 3076; Rosetti). This putative Latin etymon is not attested and there are not any Romance cognates deriving from it. In Latin there is sudo „to sweat” from which derive the Romance languages forms. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages: cf. Sanskrit svidyatisvedate ‘to sweat’, sveda ‘sweat’, Avestan χvaeda ‘sweat’, Latvian sviedri ‘sweat’, Greek (ε)ίδος ‘id’, OHG swissen ‘to sweat’ and so on, all from PIE *sueid- , with nominal forms *su(e)drosuoido ‘sweat’ (IEW, 1043) (see sudoare ‘sweat’).

Derivatives: asudareasudatasudătorasudăturăneasudat etc.

 

asụpra (Aromanian asupră, Megleno-Romanian supră) (adv.) – 1. over, above; 2. against.

Latin *ad-supra (Puşcariu, 156; REW, 200; Cioranescu, 497). There are no cognates in other Romance languages, except for Sardinian assubra. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Sanskrit upari, Avestan upari ‘above’, Greek ΰπερ, Umbrian supersubra, Albanian sipër and so on, all from PIE *uperuperi ‘over, above’ (IEW, 1105).

Derivatives: deasupraa asupriasuprireasuprealăasupritor.

 

asurzị (Aromanian asurdzăscu) (vb., IV) – 1. to grow deaf; 2. to deafen.

Latin  *assurdire obsurdesco (Puşcariu, 157; REW, 6024; Cioranescu, 498); cf. French assourdir, Italian assordire, as well as Albanian shurdër ‘deaf’. It seems to be a derivative of surd (see surd ‘deaf’).

Derivatives: asurzireasurzitorasurzeală.

 

aşạ (variants aşeaşea, Aromanian acşeaşiţe, Megleno-Romanian şa, Istro-Romanian (a)şo) (adv.) – 1. such, in this way, like this; 2. so.

Latin *ac sic < sic ‘thus’ (Puşcariu, 133; REW, 7897; Cioranescu, 450); cf. Italian cosi, Spanish asi, Provensal aissi, as well as Sanskrit asan ‘so and so’, Sanskrit ish ‘so, also’, Old Latin suad ‘so’, Greek ώς ‘id’, all from PIE *sŭo ‘thus, so’ (IEW, 884). The adverb aşa cannot derive from Latin *ac sic or sic which would not give aşa in Romanian. Although there are some similar forms in other Romance languages, but they cannot not derive from the same Vulgar Lartin etymon. Romanian aşa is closer to Old Latin suad and PIE *sŭo. It derives from an older *acsua > *asia. It seems to be of pre-Roman origin.

 

aşadạr (adv.) – therefore, hence.

It is a compound form from aşa and dar (see aşadar ‘but’, iar ‘but, and’).

 

ạşchie (Aromanian iascl’ă) (n., fem.) – chip, sliver, splinter.

Vulgar Latin *ascla < *astula < assula ‘splinter, chip’ (Puşcariu, 136; Candrea-Densusianu, 94; REW, 736); cf. Vegliote jaska ‘id’, Napolitan aška, Italian (dial.)aschia,  Italian ascola, Spanish astilla, as well as Albanian ashkë ‘id’, Neo-Greek άσκλα ‘id’.

As one may see the Romance forms presuppose many different Vulgar Latin etymons. Corominas (1, 284) derives Spanish astilla from a Medieval Latin astĕlla ‘little chip or splinter’, while different Italian dialects presuppose other etymons. Some of the Italian dialectal forms are closer to the Romanian and Albanian ones. The Neo-Greek form is a loanword from Aromanian. It seems to be of  Thraco-Illyrian origin.

Derivatives: a aşchiaaşchiereaşchiuţăaşchioarăaşchios.

 

aşezạ (Aromanian aşedz) (vb., I) – 1. to seat (someone), to sit down; 2. to place, to put, to set, to lay; 3. to pile, to stack; 4. to settle down, to lay down.

Latin *assediare < sedere ‘to sit down’ (Hasdeu, Etym., 1992; Puşcariu, 142; REW, 721; Cioranescu, 464). The only Romance cognate seems to be Frenchasseoir < Vulgar Latin *assedere (cf. Dauzat, 51) (see şedea ‘to sit’).

Derivatives: aşezareaşezataşezământaşezătoraşezătură.

 

aşteạmăt (obs.) (adv.)  – 1. secretly, stealthly; 2. slowly, quitely.

It was associated with Latin schema < Greek σχήμα (Puşcariu, Dacor., 5, 411-420) or with štimati > Latin aestimare ‘to estimate’ (Iordan, RF, 2, 276). Needless to say that neither of  these hypotheses can be accepted for either phonological or semantic reasons. Cioranescu (483) considers it to be of unknown origin. This word may be associated with PIE *tem(ǝ)- ‘dark’ (IEW, 1063), found in many Indo-European languages with this meaning including Romanian întuneca ‘to become dark’, întuneric ’dark’. The root is found also in other Nostratic languages from Proto-Nostratic *t(ʰ)am-, *t(ʰ)ǝm- ‘to cover over, to hide; to become dark’ (B&K, 101). The meaning in some Afrasian languages is closer to  aşteamăt; cf. Egyptian tms ‘to hide, to cover, to bury’, Coptic tōms ‘to bury’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

aşteptạ (Aromnian aşteptu, Megleno-Romanian ştet, Istro-Romanian aşteptu) (vb., I) – 1. to wait (for), to await; 2. to expect; 3. to hope for.

Latin *adspectare > *astectare (Meyer-Lübke, Gramm. 1, 469; Puşcariu, 151; Densusianu, Rom., 33, 274; Candrea-Densusianu, 104; REW, 3039; Cioranescu, 484); cf. Italian aspettare, Calabrian astettare. These putative Latin etymons have no attestation, although they are similar to Latin expectare ‘to look out for, to wait for, to hope for’, a derivative of  spectare ‘to watch, to examine, to consider’. All these forms derive from PIE *spek- ‘to look at’, spek-to ‘to behold, to perceive, to sight’; cf. Sanskrit spaśati (III, sg.) ‘to see, to look at’, Avestan spasyeiti ‘to look at’, Greek σπεκτομαι (I, sg.) ‘to look at’.

Derivatives: aşteptareaşteptat.

 

aştẹrne (Aromanian aşternu, Megleno-Romanian ştern, Istro-Romanian (a)şternu) (vb., III) – 1. to spread (out), to lay out; 2. to make one’s bed; 3. to write down.

Latin asternere ‘prostrate oneself’ (Cipariu, Gramm., 107; Puşcariu, 151; Candrea-Densusianu, 105; REW, 8248; Cioranescu, 485). Latin asterno, -ere is a derivative of sterno ‘to spread, strew, scatter, lay out’ which is semantically much closer to Romanian aşterne. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages; cf. Greek στρώννυω „to spread”, Albanian shtrin „to spread”, Old Irish sernim „to spread out, to lay out”, which are also semantically closer to aşterne. All derive from PIE *ster-, steru-, streu- „to spread (out), to lay out” (IEW, 1029). In other words this Romanian verb is rather a derivative from the root stern-o which might be of Latin or Thraco-Dacian origin, prefixed with a.

Derivatives: aşternereaşternut.

 

atạre (Aromanian a(h)tare, Megleno-Romanian ftari(h)tare) (adv.) – such, as such.

Latin talis ‘of such a kind’ (Cioranescu, 502). Similar froms are found in other Romance languages; cf. Old French itel > French tel ‘such’, Provensal aital, Old Spanish atal > Spanish tal.  All these forms seem to derive from a Vulgar Latin *atal-i; cf. OCS tolŭ ‘thus, such’.

 

atârnạ (vb., I) – to hang, to be suspended, to hang down.

According to Cihac (2, 476), it is a loanword from Hungarian aterni ‘to spread over’, while Cioranescu (519) considers it of uncertain origin. This verb is found in all Romanian dialects and, therefore, it cannot be of Hungarian origin. On the other hand, Romanian atârna is synonymous with anina and it seems they have the same origin, namely from from PIE *ar- ‘to divide, to hang, to go up’ (IEW, 61) through an older *arnina > atârna (see anina). Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: atârnatatârnătoareatârnăturăneatârnareneatârnattârnaţ „balcony, terrace”(Trans.).

 

atật (Aromanian ahtântuahâtatânt, mgl. tăntu) (adv.)  – 1. so much, so long; 2. as much as, as far.

Latin eccum tantum (Puşacariu, 162; Densusianu, Rom. 33, 274; Candrea-Densusianu, 110; REW, 8562). Derivatives from Latin tantus are found in all Romance languages.

Latin tantus, -a, -um ‘so great’ is derived from tam ‘equally’, being reconstruceed after quantus (cf. Walde, II, 648); cf. Oscan e-tanto ‘tanta’, Umbrian e-tantu‘tanta’. The initial e- in Oscan and Umbrian forms brings them closer to the Romanian ones. In other words, it is clearly not necessary to start from a Latin eccum tantum to have Romanian atât. It seems to be of Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

atịnge (vb., III)  – 1. to touch, to brush against; 2. to disturb, to trouble; 3. to offend; 4. to reach.

Latin attingere ‘to touch, to reach, to attack’ (Puşcariu, 161; Candrea-Densusianu, 108; REW, 768); cf. Italian attingere, Old Provensal atenher.

Latin attingere is a derivative of tango ‘id’ from PIE *tag- ‘to touch, to take’ (IEW, 1054); cf. Gothic tēkan ‘to touch’, Old Norse taka ‘to take’, Old Irish tongid(III, sg.) ‘to swear’, cymr. tyngu ‘to swear’.

Derivatives: atingereatinsatingător.

 

atlạs (n., neut.) – atlas, books of maps.

From  Atlas ‘a titan of classical mythology’ (since 17th century).

 

atụnci (Aromanian atunţea, Megleno-Roamanian tunţea, Istro-Romanian (a)tunţ) (adv.) – 1. then, in that time; 2. consequently, therefore.

Latin *ad tunc ce < tunc ‘then’ (Philippide, Principii, 92; Puşcariu, 164; Candrea-Densusianu, 114; REW, 810; Cioranescu, 528). Similar forms are found only in the Romance languages from the Iberian Peninsula; cf. Catalan adonchs, Spanish entonces, Old Portuguese entom.

The form tunc was used until Rome’s Republican times, later it was used tum, while tunc was used only emphatically. In Medieval Latin appears the form ad tuncwhich could not possibly have any influence on Romanian. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

ạţă (n., fem.) – 1. thread, fiber; 2. directly, straight on.

Latin acia ‘thread, yarn’ (Puşcariu, 158; REW, 102; Cioranescu, 500); cf. Italian acia, Calabrian azza, Venetian atssa, Milanese asa, Engadine atsa.  In fact, Latinacia would give in Romanian     *ace or something similar. Romanian form comes much closer to the Calabrian, Venetian and Engadine forms. Walde -Hoffmann(I, 8) derives acia < *aquia from acus „needle”; cf. Armenian asłani ‘thread’, asełn ‘needle’.

Derivatives: aţicăaţos.

 

aţâţạ (adv.) – 1. to light, to kindle; 2. to stir up, to instigate.

Latin *attitiare from  titio ‘firebrand, piece of  burning wood’ (Puşcariu, Lat. ti, 40; Puşcariu, 163; Candrea-Densusianu, 111; REW, 769; Cioranescu, 521). Romanian aţâţa should be associated with  a înteţi ‘to grow, to kindle’ (see  înteţităciune). The Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no other cognates in any of the Romance languages. It seems to be of pre-Roman origin.

Derivatives: aţâţareaţâţataţâţător.

 

aţịne (vb., III) – 1. to be on the watch of somebody, to be in wait of somebody; 2. to be in watch for.

Lat. *attenare < attinere ‘hold on/to/together/back’ (Puşcariu, 160; Cioranescu, 515). It should be considered a derivative of Romanian from a ţine ‘to hold’ (seeţine).

 

aţipị (vb., IV) – to fall into a light sleep, to fall asleep.

Latin *adtepire < tepere „to be warm, lukewarm” (Rosetti, I, 163; Cioranescu, 317).

The Latin etymon has no attestation and there are no cognates in any of the Romance languages. On the other hand, the meanings are quite different. However, the verb aţipi might be associated with Latin tepeo from PIE *tep- ‘to be warm’ (IEW, 1069) (see topi ‘to melt’), although the association is only hypothetical. Uncertain origin.

Derivatives: aţipireaţipit.

 

ạu¹ (interj.) – ouch.

PIE *au ‘exclamation of pain or irritation’ (IEW, 71); cf. Latin au ‘id’, Sanskrit o,  NHG au, Latvian au, Czech, Polish au It has the same origin as aoleo ‘ah, o my, oh dear’ which cannot be explain through Latin (see aoleo).

 

ạu² (obs.) (Aromanian auai) (conj.) – 1. or; 2. possibly, perhaps.

Latin aut ‘or’ (Diez, 1, 292; Puşcariu, 165; Candrea-Densusianu, 114; REW, 810; Cioranescu, 529). Latin aut should remain the same in Romanian.

Walde (1, 87) derives Latin aut from PIE *au; cf. Greek αύ ‘on the other hand, or’, as well as Umbrian uteote ‘or’, Oscan outi ‘or’. Romanian au should be considered of  Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

ạuă (dial., obs.) (n., fem.)  – grapes.

Latin ūva ‘grape, cluster’ (Puşcariu, 166; Candrea-Densusianu, 117; DAR; Cioranescu, 530); cf. Italian, Spanish, Portuguese uva ‘id’, Sardinian ua. The word was an archaism already in the 17th century, but still used today  in Oltenia to define a variety of grapes (cf. Puşcariu, Dacor., 8, 324). This Romanian noun may be of Latin origin, but the derivation is not clear.

 

audiẹnţă (n., fem.) – audience.

Latin audientia (Cioranescu, 352) from audire „to hear” (see auzi). Since 17th century.

 

ạur (Istro-Romanian  aur) (n.) – gold.

Latin aurum ‘gold’ (Puşcariu, 170; Candrea-Densusianu, 118; REW, 800; Cioranescu, 534).

Latin aurum derive from an older Italic *auso-m, itself from PIE *aus-os to be bright, gold, dawn’ (IEW, 86). The root is found in many other Indo-European languages. In a number of other Indo-European languages it means ‘gold’ as well ; cf. Sabine ausom ‘gold’, Old Prussian ausis ‘id’, Tocharian A wäs ‘id’, as well as Irish or ‘id’, Welsh aur ‘id’, Albanian ar ‘id’, which, according to a number of linguists,  are of Latin origin.

One should not forget that Dacia had huge gold deposits, the largest in Europe  (which was the main reason why the Romans conquered Dacia (see Introduction)) and Dacians were great specialists in extracting and processing it. On the other hand, the form is found in a large number of different indo-European languages. It may be considered of Thraco-Dacian origin.

Derivatives: a auriauraraurărieauritdauritaurosaurifer etc.

 

aụstru (Aromanian austru) (n., neut.)  – south-western wind (in Romania).

Latin auster ‘south wind’ (Puşcariu, 174; Candrea-Densusianu, 113; REW, 807; DAR).

 

aụş (Aromniasn auş ‘grandfather, ancestor’) (obs.) (n., masc.) – old man, grandfather.

Latin avus ‘grandfather’ (Candrea-Densusianu, 122; DAR; REW, 839; Cioranescu, 536) which derives from PIE *aweu-, awyo-, awo- ‘grandfather’ (Lehmann, A242); cf. Hittite hahhaš, Gothic awo ‘grandmother’, Lithuanian avynas ‘grandfather’, Welsh ewytr, Old Irish ai ‘grandfather’, Armenian hav ‘id’. Romanian bunic ‘id’ derives from the same root (see bunic ‘grandfather’).

 

auşẹl (n., masc.) –  (gold)-crested wren (Regulus cristatus).

It was derived erroneously from  auş ‘old man, grandfather’ (DAR; Cioranescu, 536), or from Latin *aucellus < avis ‘bird’ (Scriban Romanian *aucel, not auşel.

It seems to derive from PIE *aŭei- ‘bird’ (IEW, 86); cf. Sanskrit vih ‘bird’, Avestan viš ‘bird’. Thraco-Dacian origin.

 

auzị (Aromanian avdu, Megleno-Romanian ut, Istgro-Romanian ovdu) (vb., IV) – 1. to hear; 2. to find out.

Latin  audire ‘to hear’ (Puşcariu, 167; Candrea-Densusianu, 124; REW, 779; Cioranescu, 542). Pan-romanic.

Derivatives:  auzauzitorneauzitnemaiauzit.

 

avậnt (n., neut.) – 1. enthusiasm; 2. boom; 3. elan, momentum.

It is a derivative of vânt „wind” prefixed with a (Cioranescu, 553).

Derivatives: a (seavântaavântareavântat.

 

aveạ (Aromanian amavuiavutaveare) (vb., II) – 1. to have, to possess; 2. to consist of.

Latin habere ‘to have’ (Puşcariu, 72; Candrea-Densusianu, 126; REW, 3958; Cioranescu, 550); cf. Vegliote avar, Italian avere, French avoir, Spanish haber. Other Italic languagers have similar forms; cf.  Umbrian habe ‘habet’, habiest ‘habebit’, Oscan hafiest ‘habebit’.

I have to mention that some of the inflected forms of Romanian verb a avea cannot derive from the equivalent (or other) forms of  Latin habeo, -ere. For instance, out  the six forms of the present tense, only two can really derive from Latin. In other words, out of: am (I, sg), ai (II, sg), are (III, sg), avem (I, pl.), aveţi (II, pl.),au (III, pl.), only (I, pl.) and (II, pl.) forms match Latin ones, while the other four do not, especially (I, sg.) and (III, sg.). On the other hand, am (I, sg.) matches well the equivalent Albanian form kam (I, sg).

Proto-Indo-European had two similar roots: *ghabh- ‘to catch, to take’ (IEW, 408) and *kap- ‘to catch’ (IEW, 537) from which the forms of the verb ‘to have’ evolved in different Indo-European languages. According to Walde-Pokorny, Proto-Indo-European did not have the aspirated voiceless velar *k(ʰ), while Bomhard-Kerns shows that it had it; cf. PIE *k(ʰ)ap(ʰ) ‘to take, to seize’ (B&K, 242). Furthermore, I have shown that Proto-Indo-European had this sound using evidence from Romanian and Albanian (see Introduction).

From these two roots different Indo-European languages developed either the forms of the verb ‘to have’ or for the verb ‘to catch, to take’. It is no doubt that in Albanian and Celtic languages the verb ‘to have’ derive from PIE *k(ʰ)ap(ʰ): cf. Albanian ka ‘to have’, Cornish caffos ‘to have’, Middle Breton caf(f)out, Bretonkavout ‘id’, while PIE *ghabh- gave verbs for ‘to catch, to take’ in Celtic languages; cf. Old Irish gaibim ‘to take, to grab’.

In Latin the situation is the other way around, where from PIE *ghabh > Latin habere ‘to have’, while PIE *k(ʰ)ap(ʰ) > Latin  capio ‘to take, to seize’ (cf. B&K, 242). Germanic languages are split in two: the east Germanic such as Gothic follows the same route as Italic langauges; cf. Gothic geben ‘wealth’, while in western Germanic languages the verbal forms for ‘to have’ derive from a PIE *k(ʰ)ap(ʰ); cf. OHG haben ‘to have’, Old Islandic hafa ‘id’, Old English habban‘id’, Old Frisian habba ‘id’, Old Norse habbean ‘id’.

Regarding Thraco-Illyrian, one may safely assume that the verbs for ‘to have’ derived from PIE * k(ʰ)ap(ʰ), as clearly indicates Albanian ka ‘to have’, while regarding Romanian a avea, as I said already we may assume that it could be a mixture between Latin habere and the original Thraco-Dacian verb for ‘to have’, if not of Thraco-Dacian origin altogether. Vladimir Orel (2000) shows that PIE *k and *k(ʰ) turned into k, in Proto-Albanian. On the other hand, I have shown (see Introduction) that Proto-Indo-European had the sound *k(ʰ) which turned into the laryngeal h in Thraco-Dacian and preserved as such in Romanian, which, in some instances, it has fallen out. From the other PIE root *ghabh-, we have Romanian a găbui ‘to catch’, where PIE *gh turned into g (see Intro) (see găbui,dibui).

Furthermore, before ending this discussion, I have to show that a similar root was reconstructed by Orel for Afrasian languages, namely AA *qam- ‘to possess, to hold’ (Hamito-Semitic…, 1995, 2033); cf. Egyptian hvm ‘to possess, to hold’, Old Chadic *qam ‘to hold’. These Afrasian forms remind us Albanian kam ‘I have’ and Romanian (eu) am ‘I have’. These are definitely not mere coincidences, but we are still far to fully understand these matters which need more investigations, but an ampler discussion is beyond the scope of this etymological dictionary.

Derivatives: avereavut, avuţiea înavuţineavutneavere.

 

avrămeạsă (n., fem.) – hedge/water hyssop (Gratiola afficinalis).

Bulgarian, Russian avram (DAR; Pascu, Suf., 26; Cioranescu, 558) or from  Avram ‘Abraham’ (Tagliavini, Arch. Rom. XII; 167).

 

ạxă (n., fem.) – axis.

Grekek άξων ‘id’ (Gáldi, Les mots, 156; Cioranescu, 559). Attested since 17th century

Derivatives: axial.

 

axiọmă (n., fem.)  – axiom.

Greek αξίωμα (Gáldi, Les mots, 156) from αξιούν ‘to be considered worthy of’; cf. French axiome. Since 17th century.

Derivatives: axiomatic.

 

ạzi (Aromanian ază, Megleno-Romanian azăas) (adv.) – today.

Latin  hac die  > *hadie which replaced  hodie ‘today’ (Puşcariu, 176; REW, 4163).

Puşcariu’s explanation does not take into account the Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian forms which do not fit into his hypothesis. Romanian azi is a derivative of zi ‘day’ prefixed by a (see zi).

Derivatives: astăzi „id”.

 

azịmă (variant azmă, Aromanian adzîmă, Megleno-Romanian azim) (n., fem.) – unleavened bread.

Greek άζυμος (Murnu, 9, Diculescu, Elementele, 472; Cioranescu, 566). This type of bread is used in some church rituals. Cioranescu shows that this word was introduced in the first centuries of the Christian era. It is present in some other Romance languages and dialects; cf. Calabrian áyimo, Venetian azme, Portugueseasmo.

 

azvârlị (variant zvârli, Aromanian azvîrlescu) (vb., IV) – to fling, to throw out/away.

It is of imitative nature from the interjection zvâr ‘it imitates the noise made by a thrown object’, suffixed with -li.  Bulgarian vărliam and Serbo-Croatian vrljti are loanwords form Romanian.

Derivatives: azvârlităazvârlitură.