The Language of the Inscriptions of the Sinaia Tablets(II)

  1. acino, aceno ‘region, territory’ (005, 009, 016, 069-2, 098, 111, 122-3, 126, 129, 134). This term is not found in today’s Romanian, but we can not say whether any of the Romanian Balkan dialect may have preserved it. For now, I do not know the origin of this Thraco-Dacian noun. However, it is possible that Romanian ținut ‘region, territory’ was rebuilt after acino by folk etymology after the past participle of  Romanian ține ‘to hold’.
  2. aevu, aevio ‘dream, wish’  was preserved in today’s Romanian adverb aevea (aievea) ‘as in a real dream, as real, really’ which is considered to be of Slavic origin, but the assumption is wrong (see DELR, aievea).
  3. anio, anu, anoe ‘years (since…) in the year’ (003, 031, 062, 130) are forerunner forms of Romanian an ‘year’, a cognate of Latin annus ‘year’ (see DELR, an)
  4. arami ‘altars, shrines’ (117) aridu ‘poor’ (045) asondue ‘incinerated / taken to heaven’ (069) are cognates of Latin āra ‘altar, shrine’. All these forms derive from PIE *as-, *azd-, *azg(h) – ‘to burn’ (IEW, 68) with a rhotacized intervocalic s in both Latin and Thraco-Dacian, as well as in Umbrian are ‘shrines’. The adjective aridu ‘poor’ is a cognate of Latin aridus ‘dry’, which    was not preserved in Romanian, but it was reintroduced in the 19th century. Offshoots of this root are found in many other Indo-European languages, such as Hittite, Sanskrit and Germanic languages (cf. EDL, 49) . In this case, the suffix i is a plural suffix also in Romanian and other Indo-European languages (see DELR, arde ’to burn’). It is unclear why in many other cases, nouns with a plural meaning have no plural endings and they seem to have singular forms.
  5. arie ‘area, zone’ (013) is a cognate of Latin ārea < ārēre ‘being dry, arid’. It seems to derive from the same root PIE *as- *azd- *azg(h) ‘to burn’ as arami (IEW, 68) above (see arami, supra).
  6. argeu ‘competence, governance, elevating’ (080). It seems to derive from PIE * reg‘- * rog’- ‘right, to lead, to straighten’ (IEW, 854) with the metathesis of the lateral r.
  1. armeo, armoso, armosa, etc. ‘army’ (005, 013, 016-3, 025-2, 028-2, 042, 052, 080-2, 084, 092, 096, 120-2, 121, 126 128, 134), armeturie ‘(of) the weapons (of …) in (…)’ (115), armu ‘by    weapons’. These forms are predecessors of Romanian armă ‘weapon’ and armaşa third rank aristocrat in of Medieval Romanian hierarchy, commander of the artillery’, cognates of Latin arma ‘weapon’.

102 a sile (zile) ‘when he was alive’ (107) is an expression of three lexical elements: the preposition a ‘at, to’, the noun sile ‘days’ and preposition pă ‘on, onwards’ . All are all discussed separately and all have correspondent forms in modern Romanian.

  1. asi ‘nation, race, family, local people’ ((013), also esio, esi, esie, esii ‘nation, tribe, people’ (007, 040, 062, 079, 092, 108-2, 109, 115, 116) are cognates Latin  assyr ‘blood’. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages, all deriving from PIE * es-r * s-en-s- ‘blood’ is slightly different the one in Walde-Pokorny (IEW, 343). From the second form of this radical derives Thraco-Dacian songe- (li) ‘(the) blood’ (where -li is a postposed definite article) also found on the Sinaia tablets which is the forerunner of Romanian sânge ‘blood’ cognate of Latin sanguis ‘id’  (see songeli (infra).
  2. atlaito,, atlatoe ‘fighters (mythical, ?), Atlanteans (025, 079,), also atleu ‘fighter, fight’ (013), atlio (atlu) ‘fight’ (091-2) are cognate of Greek άθλος ‘fighting, contest, competition’ missing from Beekes’s Greek Etymological Dictionary (EDL). Therefore, we can not say whether Thracian if borrowed from Greek or phenomenon was vice-versa. Presumably, the verb lutue ‘to fight’ belong to this  family (see lutue, supra, verbs)
  3. badu, badiu ‘nation, relative’ (006, 007), bato (bado) ‘fraternal, related’ (045). Nothing similar was preserved in Romanian. In addition, the origin of these root remains obscure.
  4. balo ‘warrior, fighter, soldier’, bela ‘of (the) warriors / fighters’ (094) are cognates of Latin bello, bellare ‘to wage war’, belabor ‘warrior, fighter’ and of Etruscan bele ‘to wage war’. In addition, the Dacian god of war was called Zabelo, while zabelo means ‘war’, clearly related to Latin Bellona ‘goddess of war’. Therefore, I am convinced that Romanian război ‘war’ derives from an older *razbalio < *zabalio < zabelo, where the root -balio has the same origin, while răz- is a prefix, which replaces za- when this prefix became meaningless in Romanian, while răz-(răs-) is an usual one.
  5. bastarnu, bastarnio ‘Bastarn’ (020, 025-2, 091, 106-2, 115, 126-2) is the name of eastern Germanic tribe of Bastarnae as in Latin bastarnus. We know from ancient historians that the Romans were using the Bastarnae (and other barbarian tribes) to attack the Dacia kingdom, as it is shown in the Sinaia tablets inscriptions as well.
  6. beni ‘to be blessed’ (092), if the meaning given by author is correct, and I believe it is correct, then this term is a cognate with Latin bonus, bene, from a similar -Thraco-Dacian root ben- ‘good’ (see, DELR, bun ‘good’).
  7. bio, rubio, bioso, vioso, bioso ‘neighbor(s), convives’ (115, 129), biotu ra ‘neighboring countries’ (012). We know that Romanian sat ‘village’ has an older form fsat < Thraco-Dacian *visato ‘village, setting’, found in Aromanian, a Romanian dialect spoken in Greece, Albania and Bulgaria and in Albanian language as well.  (see DELR, sat). The root is found in Dacian city name Potaissa, as it appears in the Latin texts, but it must have been *Patavisa in Dacian, a compound place name from pata- ‘wide, high’ and vissa ‘village settlement’ (created on the same principle as today’s city name Satu-Mare). In Latin there was no v sound, and in foreign words it was pronounced (written) u, deleted in this case, since it was difficult to pronounce. Walde-Hoffmann (2, 783) shows that Latin vicus ‘village’ < PIE * ŭoikos ‘dwelling house’. It looks like Romanian vecin ‘neighbor’ derives from Latin vicinus ‘neighbor’ < vicus ‘village’. On the other hand, given all these data, one may say Romanian vecin, replaced an older Thraco-Dacian similar form, unknown to us, but similar to the forms discussed here. The root is found in many Indo-European languages. All these Thrace-Dacian forms derive form the same Proto-Indo-European root, where PIE *k turned into the sibilant s, when followed by a high vowel, as in Potaissa as well, an usual phonological transformation in Thrace-Dacia and Romanian (see, DELR, Potaissa, sat).
  8. bisica ‘altar, temple’ seems to derive from the same root as the basilica <  Greek βασιλεύς ‘king (particularly the Persian kings), prince’, as well as Romanian biserică ‘church’ (see DELR, biserică). Greek has two words for ‘king’. Beekes shows that βασιλεύς is a Pre-Greek loanword. A similar form is found in Mycenaean of the Linear B as  qa-si-reu/gʷasileus, feminine qa-sire-i-ja. In most mainland Greek dialects PIE *and turned into p or b respectively. There was a similar situation in Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian (and preserved in Romanian) where these labio-velars turned into p or b, only when they were followed by a back vowel (a, o). The Linear B texts are about 3400-3450 years old and they are rather Proto-Thracian than Proto-Greek as it is generally assumed. The hypothesis remains to be verified by correct etymological evaluation of the vocabulary of the Linear B. One may notice that at that time the Indo-European labio-velars were still preserved and therefore, this phonological transformation took place some time later, perhaps around, 1,300 B.C (see DELR, Introduction).
  9. boiciro ‘member(s) of a higher Dacian caste’ (006, 025, 065, 092, 119), boeni ‘descendants of goddess Bo’ (084) considered to be the ancestor of the people who belonged to this caste.
  10. bun, bune ‘ancestor, ancient’ (124, 134) are forerunners of Romanian bun, bunic ‘grandfather’, străbun ‘ancestor’, from PIE *aweu-, *awyo-, *awo- (Lehmann A242) (see DELR, bun²)
  11. calisteu ‘welfare / healers’ (069) should be associated with Greek καλός ‘beautiful, noble, good’. Beekes (EDG, I, 626) argues that it is of unknown Pre-Greek origin, but it seems to be a loanword from Proto-Thraco-Illyrian.
  12. cap (capu) ‘end’ (042), capo, capi, capu ‘head, priest, chieftain / holy person’ (003, 011, 016, 018, 022, 028, 065, 108, 117, 119- 2, 134), capoe ‘priestess’ (109), capono ‘chieftain, shrine (122) copono ‘shrine, holy place’ (001, 021, 023, 028, -35, 096, 116, 118, 124 127) capisenta ‘temple’ (003), copo ‘princes (priests) / holy person’ (119) are forerunners of Romanian cap (and other derivatives) are cognates of Latin caput and many other Indo-European languages forms, all deriving from PIE *kap-ut ‘head’ (IEW 529). The verb decapeu ‘decapitation’ (111) has the prefix de- found in Romanian and Latin and other Romance languages (see DELR, cap).
  13. casa ‘home, house’, caseto, casoto, casitu ‘local, from their places, from their homes’ (003, 080, 106), cosoa, cosu ‘sanctuary’, as well as a casu ‘in the sanctuary’ where a is the preposition ‘at’ plus the noun caso. These forms are forerunners of Romanian casă ‘house’ (and its derivaitves), a cognate of Latin casa ‘cottage’. Some linguists such Ernout-Meillet (103) and de Vaan, (96) believe that Latin casa is a loanword in Latin.  All these forms derive from PIE *ket- *kot- ‘dwelling’ (IEW, 586) with other cognates in Indo-Aryan, Germanic, Celtic languages as well as in Albanian, besides the Romance languages (see DELR, casă).
  14. caser, casero, caesar ‘Caesar’ (028, 040) a loanword from Latin caesarus.
  15. catenoe ‘chains’ (130) is a cognate of Latin catena ‘chain, link’ from an older *catesna (Walde (1, 181) or a *cates- (de Vaan, 98), while Walde-Pokorny reconstructs a PIE *kat- ‘weaving, braiding , link’ (IEW, 534). From this root stems Romanian cătușă ‘fetter’, as well.
  16. catulat ‘cornered’ (040) originates from a root * kat- with the ending (u)-l and the suffix -at which is, as in other cases, the past participle suffix as in modern Romanian, Latin and a number of Romance languages. It should be associated with Romanian colț ‘corner, fang’. Both derive from PIE *kel- ‘to sting, to bore, to pierce’ *kol-to ‘sharp tip, apex’ (IEW, 545). The Thrace-Dacian form derives from the Proto-Indo-European nominal root *koi-to.
  17. cerencea, cerentea ‘application, request, requirement’ (022, 040), cerentia ‘asked for, required’, cerinceo ‘putting conditions / claims / obligations’ (121) are predecessor forms of the Romanian verb a cere ‘to ask for’, a cognate of Latin quaere ‘seek, investigate’, all deriving from PIE *kʷeit-, *ke (i)ro ‘to notice, to defend’ (IEW, 636) with cognates in most Romance languages. Note that both the meaning of the Latin and the Romance languages are quite different from Thraco-Dacian, respectively Romanian meaning.
  18. ceri (ceriu) ‘sky’ (126) is the forerunner of Romanian cer ‘id’, cognate of Latin caelum ‘sky’ and Albanian qiell ‘id’.
  19. cetie, cetu ‘bands (groups), fortress’ (009-2, 062) is the predecessor of Romanian ceată ‘group, band’, cognates of Latin caterva ‘company, group, band’ and Umbrian kateramu, caterahamo ‘band, group’.
  20. cotopolo ‘His Eminence, His Holiness’ (006, 013, 025, 028, 035-2, 039, 052-2, 065, 080, 092-2, 117, 119, 120, 122, 134), cotopolu boiceru ‘the Pontiff of the boiceros’ (-94, 096, 124). It seems to be a derivative of copono ‘shrine, holy’ (001, 021, 023, 028, -35, 096, 116, 118, 124, 127), but the derivation is uncertain.
  21. compeu ‘change / compensation / completed’ (025) is the predecessor of Romanian schimb , schimba ’(to) change’, a cognate of Latin cambo, -ire ‘to change’ which is considered Gaulish origin (cf. DELR, schimba).
  22. compo ‘all’ (018) is a compound word from po (as in po, pu ‘to put’, prefixed by com- (con-). Similar forms are found in Latin and Romance languages (see supra, verbs). Therefore, the original meaning of this word is ‘putting together’. The noun was not preserved in Romanian.
  23. daceu, dace ‘Dacians’ (005-2, 006, 022-2, 065-2, 084, 121), daco, dacu ‘Dacian’ (adj.) (016-2, 028-2, 098, 126) is ethnonym by which Dacians called themselves, borrowed into Latin. The older form was dau (pl. dai), being associated with dava ‘city, fortress’. Both forms derive from PIE *dhē- ‘to place, to settle, to set’, with the nominal form *dew-. Therefore, this ethnonym meant ‘local, sedentary, settled people’ which, semantically speaking, has the same meaning with get ‘Getus (Getae)’ (see dava,  geto, ultra) (cf. DELR, dac, get).
  24. dalmatu ‘Dalmatians’ (091) is the ethnonym by which were called the ancient Illyrians of Dalmatia.
  25. dardani ‘Dardanians’ (091, 123) is the ethnonym of the Thracians of  Dardania.
  26. dava, davo ‘Dacian city or fortress’ (001, 003, 008-2, 009, 010, 011-2, 014-2, , 025, 028, 042-2, 045, 0052-2, 058, 0-69-2, 092, 108, 112, 116, 117-2, 118-2, 119, 120, 122, 123-2, 124, 126, 127-2, 134-2),  daviu ‘of the city’ ((108), davogheto, davogeto (008, 009, 010, 011, 12-2, 015, 035, 031-2, 035-2, 039-2, 045, 069, 072-2, 079, 080-2, 092-2, 116, 118-2, 119-2, 120, 126-2, 127, 128-2, 129, 130). A well known noun found in many ancient authors as well as in many Dacian place names. Tomaschek (2, 1:9) argues that dava derives form PIE*dhē- ‘to place, to settle, to set’, related to the ethnonym daco ‘Dacian’ (older dau (pl. dai) (see daceu, supra).


  1. dardani ‘Dardanians’ (091, 123) is the ethnonym by which were called the Thracians of Dardania.
  2. dava, davoa Dacian fortress or city’ (001, 003, 008-2, 009, 010, 011-2, 014-2,, 025, 028, 042-2, 045, 0052-2, 058, 0- 69-2, 092, 108, 112, 116, 117-2, 118-2, 119, 120, 122, 123-2, 124, 126, 127-2, 134-2), daviu ‘of the city or fortress’ ((108 ) davogheto, davogetoa citizen of a Getian dava’ (008, 009, 010, 011, 12-2, 015, 035, 031-2, 035-2, 039-2, 045, 069, 072- 2, 079, 080-2, 092-2, 116, 118-2, 119-2, 120, 126-2, 127, 128-2, 129, 130). The noun is well-known from ancient writings, but also as in Dacian compound place-names. Tomaschek (2, 1: 9) believes that dava derives from PIE * dhē- ‘to place, to set’, zesco ‘of the gods, godlike’ (122), zieadă ‘pantheon’.
  3. deu ‘god’ (003, 011, 039, 094, 122), diu ‘god, priest’ (001, 005, 010, 015, 020, 042, 052, 072, 080, 091, 115, 116-2 122), deus ‘the High Priest / god’ (058), dieu ‘the god, divine,  of the god’ (002, 010, 035, 039, 092, 096, 098, 107, 116, 122-2, 124),  ze, zeu, zi, ziu, zieu ‘god, gods,  of the gods’ (003-3, 008, 010, 011, 015, 016, 018, 025, 036, 039, 052, 062, 065, 069, 079-7, 080-2, 091, 094, 096-2, 109, 117, 121-2, 123, 124-3, 128-2), zesco ‘of the gods, godlike’ (122) zieada ‘the gods’ realm, pantheon’, zieado dava ‘Zeudava / City of Gods’, zieo ‘pantheon, realm of the gods’. All these forms are forerunners of Romanian zeu ‘god’, zână ‘goddess, fairy’. All cognates of Latin deus ‘god’. Outside Sinaia tablets, the root is found Thracian/Dacian god-names, such as Saba-zios/Saba-dios, Gebelei-zis, and even Zeus, the well-known “Greek” god-name which exhibits a Thraco-Dacian phonological development, rather then a Greek one. In modern Romanian we have forms in z only (see DELR, zeu). The forms in voiceless dental such as tei, teu, teo, teos, tio, tiu ‘parents / priests / divine / prelates / gods / priests / deity’ (008-2, 010, 035-2, 052, 058, 069, 072-2 , 080, 107, 113, 116, 124-2) seem to have the same origin as those in d (respectively z) by turning the voiced dental into voiceless one for semantic reasons. One may notice that forms in voiceless dental define mostly the priests and prelates rather than the gods, while the forms in voiced dentals define, in general, the gods or related directly to these realities or to the high priests. We also know that one of the High Priests (1st century B.C.) was known to the ancient world as Deceneus. According to the inscriptions of the tablets, he was actually called Dio Ceneo ‘the Divine Ceneo’, not Deceneo as one may expect. Obviously Deceneus is a misnomer due to the misunderstanding of his real name by the ancient Greek and Roman writers. Also, the form zesco ‘of the gods, godlike’ exhibits the suffix -esco identical to the Romanian -esc (as in Romanian zeesc /dumne-zeesc ‘godlike, of the gods/of God’) with the same meaning and very frequent in Romanian language. Similar suffixes are found in Germanic and Slavic languages, but not in Latin.
  4. diniza (duniza) ‘uproar / hasty stampede’ (076) seems to be a cognate of Latin  densus < PIE *d (e) -ns-o- ‘thick’ (de Vaan, EDL, 167). If the association is correct, Romanian des ‘thick, frequent’ is related to the Thraco-Dacian. diniza.
  5. dinogeto ‘Dinogetian, of Dinogetia (a place-name)’ (120) is a compound form from dino- and get, where get is well known (get, ultra), however, the origin of dino. remains unknown.
  6. disile ‘collapse, disappearance’ (106) is a cognate of Latin dissilio ‘to crack, to shatters’ (cf. Nicolaescu). It has the same origin as Romanian a însăila ‘to tack together’  from the same root sil- (see însăila, DELR).
  7. dota ‘dowry / given’ (118) is a derivative of the past participle form of the verb dau ‘to give’ (see da, supra, Verbs).
  8. doxa ‘teaching’ ((003), doxu ‘sage’ (116) are  Greek loanwords.
  9. droizo / druzo (110) ‘Druids’. Most linguists consider that Celtic druid derives from PIE *der- ‘tree’ which would have meant in Celtic languages ‘oak’.
  10. eresie ‘heresy’ (110) may be considered of Greek origin, borrowed in Latin as well: cf. Latin haeresis < Greek hairesis ‘capture, choice, party, philosophical school’, a derivative of haireoo ‘to take, to grasp, to seize’ has not known etymology in Greek (cf. Beekes, EDG, I, 42). In other words, Romanian erezie ‘heresy’ as well as eres ‘superstition, belief in miraculous forces’ seem to be in the language for thousands of years. If erezie has many correspondents in other European languages, eres has no cognates, not even in Greek. One may conclude that Romanian eres may have a different origin or the Greek hairesis is not a derivative of the verb haireoo.
  11. erigerio, erigeros, erigiro ‘ruler, governor’ (107, 124-2), erigeriu ‘leader (deputy), follower, regent’ (007-2, 031-3, 062, 069-2, 092- 2, 094, 120, 124). It was not preserved in Romanian as such, but it is closely related to rigă ‘king’ (obs.). It derives from PIE * reg‘- ‘right, to direct, to guide, to lead, to stretch’ (IEW, 854) with cognates in many Indo-European languages (cf. DELR, rigă).
  12. erie ‘provinces / area’ (123-2). It seems to have the same origin as arie ‘area, zone’ (see arie, supra).
  13. erio ‘creature, being’ (002) derives from the root er- of the verb  fi ‘to be’, found also  in some  forms of the verb ‘to be’, in Romanian, Latin and some of the Romance languages.
  14. falangeo, -u ‘phalanx, arms, wings’ (080, 111, 117) is related to Greek φάλαγξa long, round piece of wood, beam, girder’. Beekes (EDG, II, 1548) argues that this noun is loanword in Greek. In Thraco-Dacian the original meaning seems to be ‘arms, wings’. The fact makes us to believe that  it is a Thraco-Macedonian word, from where it got its famous meaning of a military formation of attack, military strategy devised by Macedonians who were related to Dacians and Thracians.
  15. famiho ‘famous’ (0170) is the predecessor of Romanian faimă, faimos, a cognate of Latin fama ‘fame’ (see  DELR, faimă,).
  16. feazu, fizu ‘shrine, place of adoration / worship’ (108-2) fofeaz, fofeazu, fofezeleu ‘praying, may the gods do so, prayer establishment to the gods’ (024, 084, 124), cognates of  Latin fido ‘trust’ and foedus ‘contract, peace treaty’ from PIE * bheidh-e / o- (EDL 218), hence Albanian be ‘oath’, besë ‘trust, faith’.
  17. fedix ‘decree’ (116) seems to derive from the same PIE * bheidh-e / o- (EDL 218), as feazu, fizu (and the other forms) (see above).
  18. foro ‘forum’ (096) seems to be a loanword from Latin forum  (cf. Umbrian furu, furo ‘id’).
  19. geta, getu ‘Getae’ (008, 15-2, 25, 035, 042-2, 052-2, 112), ghetu, ghetero ‘Getian kingdom, Getae, Getian’ (003-3, 007- 3, 023, 042, 052, 058, 076-4, 091-2, 106-3, 108-2, 109-3, 115-3, 127), ghetodav (058) (see davoget) is the ethnonym of the population living to the southern and eastern sides of the Carpathian mountains. It was associated to Greek Gea, Gaia ‘the goddess of the earth’. The root is found in many other Indo-European languages meaning ‘earth, land’ from PIE * dh-g’h-man- ‘earth’ (EDL 292); cf. Latin humus, Oscan huntrus, Umbrian hutra, Greek χθών, Albanian dhe,  OCS zemlija etc. One may notice that the Greek form is different from the name of the goddess which much closer to the ethnonym of Getae. In other words, the ethnonym get ‘Getus/ Getae’ means ‘local people, original people’ (see dac,  supra).
  20. gramat ‘learned/educated person’ (013) is a loan from Greek.
  21. hatu ‘territories, realms’ (002). It may be related to Romanian hat ‘fallow, border’ (cf. DELR, hat).
  22. hero (heru) ‘legacy, inheritance’ (109) is a cognate Latin hērēs ‘heir’ < PIE * g’hero – ‘left abandoned’ (EDL 282). It is difficult to say if it is a loanword from Latin or it is a Thraco-Dacian word, since PIE * gh > g, Thrace-Dacian (and Romanian) but there are a few exceptions to this rule (cf. DELR, horn).
  23. hiho, chico ‘children’ (003) should be associated with Romanian cocon (cocă) ‘child’ whose origin has been controversial for a long time. In DERL(cocon) I have shown that it derives from PIE * kouko-s ‘curved, round’ (IEW, 588).
  24. hronosu ‘chronicle’ (134) is a loanword from Greek.
  25. hurasiu, jurasiu, zurasio ‘oath’ (019, 134-3) is either a cognate of Latin iūro ‘to swear’ or a loanword from Latin.
  26. hiro ‘heroes’ (127) is another loanword from Greek.
  27. iazyges, eazigi (040-3, 128) is the ethnonym of some Scythian tribes.
  28. icu ‘kick / hit’ (003) is a cognate of Latin ico -ere ‘to strike, to strike hard’ < PIE * ik-e / a “to hit, to bore, to pierce’ (EDL 295). The verb was not preserved in Romanian language, unless      the verb a izbi ‘to hit, to strike’ is not a variant of it.
  29. ilerio ‘Illyrian’ (108) is the ethnonym of the on the western side of Dacian kingdom who spoke the same language.
  30. ime, imu ‘name, naming, named’ (003-2, 040, 062, 079, 084, 096, 119), imeio ‘to be appointed / nominated’ (072), imitu ‘will be called, called’ (119), imu ih ‘calling, / named, his name’ (003), imanu ‘nomination / appointment’ (062), z (imu) ‘(they) call themselves, are called’ (003) emia, mia ‘called (fem.)’ (109). There are also forms such as numu /numi ‘name’ (119), the same as in modern Romanian nume ‘name’. These forms have cognates in many Indo-European languages, including Latin. all from PIE * ne-mn-, n-men ‘name’ (EDL, 412). Most of the Thrace-Dacian forms for ‘name’ are similar to the Celtic, Albanian and Slavic forms; cf. Old Irish ainm, Old Welsh anu, Albanian emër  and  Russian imya.
  31. istriano ‘Istrian (from Istros region)’ (052) defines an inhabitant of the Danube region. One may notice that the suffix -ian(o) is a specific not only to Latin and Romance languages, but also to Thraco-Dacian. Romanian language inherited it from  Thraco-Dacian.
  32. itu ‘thread’ (069) is a cognate of Latin licium ‘string, lace’ and a predecessor of Romanian iță ‘warp, spider’s thread’..
  33. iso (izu) ‘measurement unit’ (025). Obscure origin.
  34. lari ‘lares’ (009, 025) is a cognate Latin Lār, Lāris ‘tutelary god’.
  35. lieo, lieu ‘binding / bonding / alliance / link’ (007-2) is a cognate of Latin lego ‘to bind’ < PIE * leg‘-e / o- ‘to reap’ (EDL 332), as well as of Greek, Albanian, Celtic verbs.
  36. limio, limu ‘border’ (128) linatu, lunea ‘border, shore, border’ (003-2, 042, 134) is a cognate of Latin limes ‘border’.
  37. luce ‘light’ (130) is the predecessor of Romanian lucoare ‘light’ and a luci ‘to shine’ (and its derivatives) and a cognate of Latin luxlucere < PIE * leuk- ‘light’ (EDL, 356) derivatives in several Indo-European languages (cf. DELR, luci).
  38. luez ‘praise, to praise’ (084) is a cognate of Latin laus, -dis ‘praise’ < PIE * leu-t (EDL 330), There are derivatives in Germanic languages.
  39. luku ‘wolves’ (127) is the predecessor of Romanian lup ‘wolf’ with cognates in most Indo-European languages; cf.  Latin lupus, Albanian ulk etc. (see DELR, lup).
  40. luneo, luniea ‘boundary, border’ (003-2) is a cognate of Latin linea ‘line, border, limit’.
  41. lure ‘penitence, payment’ is a cognate of Latin luri ‘to atone’ (cf. Nicolaescu).
  42. mahidonu, makidonu ‘Macedonian’ (007, 013, -79, 091-2, 106, 108, 109, 115). The inscriptions texts show that the Dacians considered Macedonians as their own brothers.
  43. maico ‘mother’ (108) is the predecessor of Romanian maică ‘mother’ and derive from PIE * ma- ‘Lalwort’ (IEW, 694). The form was  borrowed into Bulgarian language.
  44. mato, matu ‘great / master / ruler’ (0101, 012, 014, 015, 025, 028-2031, 045, 052-3, 058-2, 062, 072, 076, 079-2, 080 , 091-3, 094, 096-3, 106-3, 107, 113, 126, 128, 129), matiho ‘the most great’ (091-5), matoso ghetto ‘the great Geatae’ (123), mateu ‘majority, bulk’ (108). These forms appear to come from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning ‘great or powerful’, similar to the one  the one from which Thrace-Dacian mare, mairo ‘big, great’ derives; cf. Latin  magnus, Albanian madh ‘big, great’ etc. All these forms derive from PIE *me-, mo- ‘big, great’ (IEW, 704). From this basic root there are, in various Indo-European languages, forms in lateral -r-, in velar (g or k) (cf. DELR, mare).


  1. medio ‘middle’ (128), miazul ‘the core, the heart’ (003) are forerunner forms of Romanian miez ‘core, middle’ with cognates in several Indo-European languages, including Latin. The second form has the postposed definite article, as in modern Romanian. It derives from PIE * medhio- ‘middle, core’ (IEW 706). Outside the Sinaia tablets, the form is attested in the Thracian personal name Mieza (cf. DELR, miez).
  2. mega, mega su ‘great, magnificient’ (091, 092, 130), megal ‘the magnificent’ (039), megau ‘several, large’ (084) are cognates of Greek μέγας, Latin magnus etc. It might be a loanword from Greek, although the root is found in some modern Romanian words such as măgădan, măgăoaie


  1. meri ‘blessed’ (025, 084, 124) could be a cognate Latin merus ‘pure, clean’ from PIE

*merH-o ‘what remains pure’ (EDL, 376).

  1. mist ‘the mysterious’ (110) is a cognate of Greek μύστικο ‘hidden, secret’.
  2. mita ‘half’ (106) is predecessor of Romanian jumătate ‘half’. The Dacian form seems to be a short form for *jemita, *jumita from PIE * iemo- ‘twin’ (IEW, 505). There are derivatives in several Indo-European languages (cf. DELR, jumătate).
  3. mondau ‘(he) entrusted /gave’ (076) has the same origin as Romanian comând, comândare ‘recommendation for proper funeral rituals’, cognates of Latin mando ‘to order, to entrust’ and commendo ‘to entrust, to recommend’ (cf. DELR, comând).
  4. montu ‘high, subjected, government’ (010, 062), montu ‘mountain’ (025) are forerunner forms of Romanian munte ‘mountain’ and cognates of Latin mons, -tis ‘id’ from PIE * monti- ‘elevation, height’ (EDL 388). Other cognates are found in Avestan and Celtic languages (cf. DELR, munte).
  5. munu ‘hand, arm’ (045) is a forerunner of Romanian mână ‘hand’ (and its derivatives) and a cognate Latin manus ‘hand’ from PIE * mon-u ‘hand’ (EDL 363). Other cognates are found in   Italic, Celtic and Germanic languages (cf. DELR, mână).
  6. negotiu, negusiu ‘trade, commerce’ (013) is a loanword from Latin negotium (< otium ‘time, leisure, relaxation’.
  7. nidu ‘nest / location / birthplace, abode’ (108) is a cognate Latin nidus ‘nest’ from PIE * nisdo- ‘nest’ (EDL 409). Other cognates are found in Celtic, Balto-Slavic, Germanic languages  and in Armenian. There is no related form in modern Romanian.
  8. nobalio, nobalie, nobalisu ‘noble, gentry’ (012, 028-2, 079, 084, 094, 096, 113, 116, 118-2, 121, 122, 124-2, 126), nobalitico ‘nobility’ (025) is a cognate of Latin nobles ‘famous, noble’ < *(g)nobilis < PIE *gno- ‘to know’ (IEW, ). The term may be a loanword form Latin.
  9. noctio ‘night’ (109-2, 127) is the predecessor of Romanian noapte ‘night’, with cognates in most Indo-European languages from PIE *nogʷts, * nokʷts ‘night’ (EDL 416) (cf. DELR, noapte).
  10. obolu, obolio (121) is a Greek silver coin weighing 0.1 grams. The term was borrowed into Latin and Thrace-Dacian as well.
  11. onperiu, onperosia ‘empire’ (040, 121), onperosi ‘emperor’ (121) is a loanword from Latin imperium.
  12. ontulneos, ontulnus ‘meeting’ (076) are predecessor forms of Romanian a întâlni ‘to meet’ (cf. DELR, întâlni). As in many other cases initial o was a middle central (unrounded) vowel (spelled ă), and it corresponds in modern Romanian to a high central (unrounded) vowel (spelled î).
  13. os ‘bone’ (042) the predecessor form of Romanian os ‘id’, a cognate of Latin ossum ‘id’(cf. DELR, os).
  14. pace, paciu (pacieo) ‘of peace, peace’ (006, 007, 022, 107, 121-2) are predecessor forms of Romanian pace ‘peace’, cognates of Latin pax, cis from PIE * pe-k ‘agreement’ (EDL 452) with cognates in the Italic, Indo-Aryan, Celtic languages.
  15. paghiu ‘payment / taxes’ (123, 134) is a cognate Late Latin pācāre ‘to give satisfaction, to pay, pacify (by arms)’. LL pācāre is a derivative of Latin pax.
  16. pant, pante ‘flag, banner’ (065, 092, 094, 096-2, 098, 112), pante data ‘battle formation’ (014), patella ‘flag’ (014). The two Thraco-Dacian forms for ‘flag’ have the same origin. They derive from PIE * pan- ‘fabric’ (IEW, 788) with cognates in Latin, Greek, and Germanic languages. The root is preserved in modern Romanian pânză ‘fabric’. Nicolaescu associates these forms  with Latin pannus ‘fabric, cloth’ which is indeed a cognate of Romanian pânză (see DELR, pânză).
  17. parta ‘part, side’ (096) is the predecessor of Romanian parte and a cognate of Latin pars, -tis . Other cognates are found in Hittite, Sanskrit and Persian language (cf. DELR, parte).
  18. pasco, pacso ‘meadow, inheritance’ (108) is a predecessor form of Romanian a paște ‘to graze, to watch’ from PIE * pe-s-, p (e) -ke / o- ‘to guard, to watch’, (EDL, 449) with cognates in Latin Hittite, Indo-Aryan, Greek and Tocharian (cf. DELR , paște).
  19. pater ‘parent’ (042), patrido, patridu, patridi, patridiu ‘homeland, of the homeland,  birth place’ (015, 039, -72-3, 079, 080, 113, 124, 134),  pater ilane ‘father of the gods’ (042) derive from PIE *pater ‘father’ with cognate in most Indo-European languages. Romanian părinte ‘parent’ may derive from these older forms or may be a Latin loanword, while patrie ‘homeland’ seem to be a modern loanword.
  20. patie ‘patience’ (128) is a cognate of Latin patior, patientia ‘patience’, Greek πάθος ‘incident, experience, misfortune’, as well as Albanian pocaqi ‘incident, misfortune’. There  are several different hypotheses regarding the origin of this root in Greek and Latin. I discussed them in DELR. On the other hand, Beekes (EDG, 1156) and de Vaan (EDL, 450) advanced some new hypotheses for Greek and Latin. It is possible that the Greek forms are loanwords from the Greek substratum. In modern Romanian, we have patimă ‘passion’ and a păți ‘to undergo, to have trouble’, and pățanie ‘incident, adventure, trouble’, respectively which should be associated with the Thraco-Dacian form and all other forms indicated here. De Vaan shows that Latin patior derives from PIE *pet- ‘to fly, fall’ > ‘to befall’ > ‘it  befalls me’ > ‘I experience’. On the other hand, it is obvious that the meanings in all these languages are similar and all these forms derive forma single source. Unfortunately, neither Beekes, nor de Vaan have any knowledge about the Romanian and Albanian forms. To make the long story short, one may reconstruct a Proto-Indo-European root *pet- ‘to suffer, to have trouble’, different from the one indicated by de Vaan.
  21. peio, peu, pii, poieh ‘children, descendants’ (002, 003, 062, 124-2) have cognates in many Indo-European languages from PIE *pōu- *pǝu-, *pu- ‘small, little’ (IEW, 842), with the  nominal form *po (u) los ‘baby animal’, putlo-s ‘child, baby’. Outside Sinaia tablets,  on various Thracian inscriptions appears the form -por in many Thraco-Dacian personal names. It was associated with Latin puer. In modern Romanian, we have forms such as prunc ‘(newborn) baby’, pici ‘urchin’, puști  ‘boy’ which  derive form the same Proto-Indo-European root (cf. DELR).
  22. peliu, pelu, pelu so ‘to bury, to be buried / buried’ (107, 122, 124) derive from PIE *pel-, *pelǝ- ‘to cover’ (IEW, 802) with cognates in many Indo-European languages meaning usually ‘skin’ or ‘cover’. For all we know, there is not any verb in modern Romanian deriving from this root., but there are several nouns of this sort such as : piele ‘skin’, poiată (dial. polată) ‘barn’, pleoapă ‘eyelid’, pojghiță ‘film, lick’, polei ‘glazed frost’ (cf. DELR). Outside Sinaia tablets,  in Suidas, there is the Thracian form pelton ‘Thracian shield’, while in  Hesychius is mentioned the Thracian peltor ‘goatskin shield’. The two forms are almost identical and closely related to Romanian piele ‘skin’.
  23. pen ‘in the hand of’ (118, 134) is cognate of  Latin penes ‘belong to, in the power of’.
  24. peneo ‘from (someone)’. Nicolaescu associates it with Latin penes ‘belong to, in the power of’ (see pen).
  25. peptu ‘chest’ (069) is the predecessor of Romanian piept ‘chest’ cognates in Latin  ‘id’, Old Irish uchte < *puktu and in Tocharian and Baltic languages (cf. DELR, piept).
  26. percila, perciliu ‘victory over the opponent, to triumph’ (005, 040, 126). It is a compound word from *per- ‘on, over, in front of’ and -cil < PIE *kel- ‘to cover, to hide’ (IEW, 553).
  27. peresete ‘one who straddle’ (114) a cognate of Latin perequito ‘to ride around, to ride through’. Both forms are compound from per- < PIE *per- ‘over, too’ (IEW, 810) and a verbal root *kueto-. I have shown on different occasions that in Tharco-Dacian, a velar (or dental) stop followed by a high vowel (e or i) underwent palatalization turning into a sibilant as it happened in this Thraco-Dacian word.
  28. plenu ‘rich people’ (045) seems to be the predecessor Romanian adjective plin ‘full’ a cognate of Latin plenus ‘id’. Other cognates are found in Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic and Sanskrit languages from PIE * pel-, ple- ‘to pour, to flow, to fill’, *pleno- ‘full’ (IEW, 1337) (cf. DELR,  plin).
  29. poesta, poesto, poestu ‘sovereign, to lead, governor, chieftain’ (010, 013, 028-2, 035, 045-2, 052, 065, 069, 072-2, 091, 098, 118, 119, 122, 130) derive from the verbal form poio (puo, pou), puto ‘he/she can, it may’ (see poio, in Verb section).
  30. popoe (popu, popa) ‘priest’ (109) is the predecessor of Romanian popă ‘id’, a  cognate of Latin popa ‘(a low level) priest’, borrowed into Slavic languages from Proto-Romanian.
  31. ra, re, rei, ‘kingdom, governing, administration, king, leader’ (002-2, 007-2, 010-2, 011, 012-4, 023, 040, 045-2, 052, 062, 072-2, 076-3, 070, 080, 091, 092, 098, 106-2, 107, 108-2, 111, 115, 122-2128-2, 130) , reca ‘kingdom, provinces’ (010, 040, 045, 052, 106), reghio ‘governing dominion’ (107), reo ‘reign’ (072, 080), ro, ra, ri ‘king, lord, governor, kingdom’ (002, 006, 007, 013, 022, 040, 052, 065-2, 079, 091, 092-2, 096, 098, 107, 109 -2, 111, 115, 121, 122-2, 130-2), reini (regni) ‘to govern’ (007) reghelento ‘governor’ (123), re BO ‘queen BO (?)’ (the ancestor of Dacian caste of boiceros),  rio ‘governance’, cognates of Latin rex and other forms of various Indo-European languages . All from PIE *reg‘- ‘right, to direct, to guide, to lead’ (IEW, 710). Dacian forms preserved the voiced velar (g) in three cases only. The fact is that in Old Irish and in Italian, there is a similar situation. Romanian rigă ‘king’ (obs.) has the same origin.
  32. recheu ‘requirement, decision’ ((010). If this lexical item is correctly identified, then it  is a cognate of Latin requirere < re-, plus quaerere ‘to seek, investigate’  < PIE *kuei-t, *kue(i)-ro (IEW, 636) (cf. DELR, cere).
  33. rio ‘river’ (010, 040, 69, 118), ruvio, rivio ‘river’ (115) are the forerunners of Romanian râu ‘river’ and cognates to Latin rivus ‘id’ (cf. DELR, râu).
  34. rivieto ‘neighboring states, neighbors, close poeple’ (127) similar to Latin ripariusa person who own land on the bank of a river’ < ripa ‘bank (of a river)’. It seems that in Latin, at a certain  time took place a confusion between rivus and ripa. Therefore, it seems that Thraco-Dacian riveto derives from rio, rivio ‘river’, with the original meaning of ‘neighboring country bordered/separated by a river’.
  35. ritu ‘rite, ritual’ (107) is a cognate of Latin ritus din PIE *r(e)i- ‘to count, to observe carefully’ (EDL 524).
  36. rudo, rudo, rudu ‘relatives, brothers’ (111, 123, 128), rodim ‘born’ (003), a rudio ‘to become brothers, to fraternize’ are the forerunners of Romanian rudă ‘relative’ (and its derivatives) considered by Romanian old school of linguistics to be of Slavic origin. In fact, the Slavic forms are cognates of the Thrace-Dacian and Romanian ones.
  37. rimu, rumuanu, rumunu, rumuno, rumunuso ‘Roman, (of) the Romans, from Romans’ (005, 006, 016, 020, 022, 025-5, 028-2, 040 -3, 065, 069,, 076, 084, 094, 096, 113, 118, 121-3, 126-2, 128, 129-2, 130, 134-2) derive from Latin romanus < Rome, a place-name apparently, of Etruscan origin.
  38. sacea, sageo ‘(the) sage’ (079), sagano ‘instructors, care / wisdom’ (065) are cognates of   Latin sāgus ‘prophet, seer’ from PIE * sāg- ‘to seek, to pursue’ (IEW, 876). It was not preserve in Romanian.
  39. saceu ‘arrow(s)’ (069) is a cognate of Latin sagitta ‘arrow’. The Latin form is found in Naevius. The etymology remains unknown in Latin, although there are similar forms not only in Romanian, but also in Albanian, and Celtic languages but also in Hittite: cf. Hittite šiyattal ‘arrow’, Irish saighid ‘arrow, spear’, Breton saeth ‘arrow’, Albanian shigjetë ‘id’, and Albanian (Tosk dialect) segetë  ‘ray, jet, stream’. All these forms derive form PIE * selg‘- ‘to free, to send, to throw’ (see salcero, ultra).
  40. salcero ‘lancer’ (094). It should be associated with saceu and with Latin sagitta ‘arrow’ with no etymology in Latin. It is a derivative of saceu with the suffix -ero, found in Romanian, Latin and other Indo-European languages. Thus, this lexical item derives frpm an older *sa(l) g, * sa (l) k < PIE * selg‘- ‘to free, to send, to throw’ (IEW, 900).
  41. samitue ‘heights’ (094) is a cognate of  Latin summus ‘highest’.
  42. sar ‘priest, clergyman’ ((079). It may be a cognate cognate of Latin sursum ’high, up’, but the assumption is not quite sure (see sargerio, sarmatu, ultra).
  43. sarcedav ‘release, order’ (005) is a compound word from sarce- and -dav, where sarce may be associated with sar (see infra) and dav with dava (see dava, above).
  44. sargerio (sarceru) ‘senior (high) leaders, order, mission’ (120) is a derivative of sar with the suffix -erio, found in other Thraco-Dacian lexical items.
  45. sargeto, sargheto ‘Upper Getae(?)’, Sargetia ‘river in Dacia running by the capital city of Dacian kingdom, Sarmigesetusa (008, 21, 076, 117). They seem to be compound words from sar and get- (see above get, sar).
  46. sarmato, sarmatu ‘Sarmatians’ (009-2, 040-3091-2, 120), sarmi, sarmizu ‘Sarmatians, of the Sarmatians’ (015, 058-3, 108-2) is the ethnonym of the inhabitants living east of the Dacian kingdom.
  47. sarmatu, sarmetu ‘high priests, summit’ (079, 118) is a derivative of sar (possibly a compound word) (see sar).
  48. sarvaceru ‘argument, fight, fight, disputed, confrontation’ (028-2, 080, 119), a word  of obscure etymology. It seems to be a compound form.
  49. skitu, skiteu ‘temple’ (001, 002-2, 003-2, 079-3, 130, 134-3) should be associated with   Romanian schit ‘little monastery (in the mountains)’ which is considered to be a loanword form Medieval Greek ασκήσις ‘exercise training’ < άσκέω ‘to process, to shape’ or ‘to exercise, to train’ (Herodotus) whose etymology is unknown in Greek (cf. Beekes, 1 , 150). It seems that the term existed in Thraco-Dacian language before the arrival of the Romans and obviously before Christianity if the word was correctly identified.
  50. seleat ‘mischief’ is a cognate of Latin scelus ‘unrighteousness, wickedness’. It was not preserved in Romanian.
  51. semio ‘race, tibe, stock’ (031) is the predecessor of Romanian seminție ‘id’, cognates of Latin semen and Russian semea ‘family’ (cf. DELR, semăna).
  52. socros ‘(of, to, with, against) father-in-law’ is the predecessor Romanian socru ‘father-in-law’ with cognates in several Indo-European languages, including Latin, all from PIE * sŭekuro ‘father-in-law’ (cf. DELR, socru).
  53. sora, sore ‘sister’ (040, 107) is the forerunner of Romanian soră ‘id’ with cognates in many Indo-European languages, all from PIE * suesor- ‘sister’ (IEW, 1051) (cf. DELR, soră).
  54. sotia ‘wife, association’ (020, 128), soot ‘together’ (117) sotivo ‘next to’ (079) onsoticie, onsotise, onsotice, onsoticeu, onsohito ‘together, accompanied by’ (009, 025, 028, 062 079, 084, 094, 108), sokeo, soceo ‘accompanied by, together’ (120) are forerunners of Romanian soț ‘husband’, soție ‘wife’, a însoți ’to accompany’ (and other derivatives) are cognates of Latin socius ‘companion’, all  from PIE * sokʷui-s ‘companion’ (IEW, 896) (cf. DELR, soț).
  55. sovaio ‘decree, agreement’ (0130), sovun ‘pact, treaty’ (134) seems to be cognate of cu OCS suvetŭ > Russian sovet ‘advice, council’ which, according to Vasmer (REW,) it is a calque after Greek συμβούλιον ‘conference, council’ (cf. Vasmer (REW), but his hypothesis is not correct. These forms are the forerunners of Romanian sfat ‘council, advice’ (and its derivatives).
  56. spatu ‘back’ (076) is a forerunner of Romanian spate ‘back’ (and spată ‘scapula’) with cognates in several Indo-European languages (cf. DELR, spate).
  57. stratu ‘army’ (021-7, 084) is a loan from Greek στρατός ‘id’. Thraco-Dacian language has also the form  armosa ‘army’ which is used more often.
  58. surloi, surlari ‘trumpets’ (012, 084) are the forerunners of Romanian surlă ‘trumpet’. They are of imitative origin and derive from PIE *suer- ‘to hum, the buzz’ (IEW, 1049) (cf. DELR, surlă).
  59. tali, talu, talue ‘heights, high, tall, above’ (002, 092, 107), talipico, talipica ‘towering, lofty, the chiefs, uplifting’ (021, 052, 058, 062, 079, 084, 094, 115, 120, 121, 124, 130), talpico (talipico) ‘from above’. It is difficult to establish etymological connections in other Indo-European languages, unless one considers that the root tal- is the result of a metathesis of alt- ‘high, tall’ as in Latin altus ‘high, tall’, found in several Indo-European language groups (Celtic Germanic, Albanian), as well as in Romanian înalt ‘tall, high’.

235 tela, tera, telus may be associated with Latin tellus ‘earth, ground’ and with Romanian ţară ‘country, countryside’. I have to mention that in classical Latin terra means ‘dry earth, soil’ (cf. DELR, țară).

  1. telaos ‘absolute, perfect’ (110) is a cognate of Greek τελέιος ‘perfect’. There seems to be a loanword from Greek. It was not preserved in Romanian.
  2. tera, teira, tere, tero, teru ‘country, land, fields’ ((003, 011, 012, 018, 025, 031, 079-2, 121-2, 134) are predecessors of Romanian țară ‘country, land’, țărână ‘dust’, țarină ‘field’. In general, Latin tellus and terra are not regarded as having a common origin as may be the case with Thrace-Dacian tela, telus, etc. and tera, teira, etc.
  3. teta ‘priest’, also used as an appellative to address a priest (107). This noun is of particular interest. It can be paired with Romanian tată ‘father’, but especially with tete (tite) ‘a form of respect to address an older brother or an older man’ found in southern Transylvanian and northern Oltenian dialects. I think teta is closer  to tete than the tată. Chantraine indicates that Homeric Greek τέττα has the same meaning as in today’s Romanian language. All these forms derive from PIE *tata ‘father (in children’s talk)” (IEW, 1056) (cf. DELR, tete, tată).
  4. tir, tiro ‘recruits soldiers’ (111, 114), a cognate of Latin tiro ‘recruit, novice soldier’ (not listed in EDL, de Vaan).
  5. tole ‘lifting’ (011) is a cognate of Latin tollo ‘to raise up, the lift up’. It was not preserved in Romanian.
  6. tometo ‘Tomitans’ (119), the inhabitants of the city of Tomis on the Black Sea.
  7. topo ‘tall, mighty, haughty’ (042, 116) does not seem to have kept anything similar in Romanian. It can be associated with certain forms of Germanic languages: cf. English top,  Old Norse toppr ‘id’.
  8. tracu, trachio ‘Thracian, Thrace’ (005, 006, 011, 012, 022, 034, 035, 040, 045, 052, 058, 065, 069, 072, 079, 092, 096, 121, 122 124, 126, 129, 134) is the ethnonym of Thracians tribes living south of Danube river.
  9. tribu ‘tribe’ (079) was lost over time being reintroduced in the 19th century is cognate of Latin tribus.
  10. trupeu, trupeo ‘council, gathering, army, defense system’ ((010, 052, 058, 091-2, 092-2, 096, 116, 129). I associate this Thraco-Dacian word with French troupe or troupeau ‘flock’ which is considered of Germanic origin, related to NHG Dorf ‘village’ or Old English thorp ‘id’. I doubt those French words are of Germanic origin, and I think they are rather of Celtic origin and cognates to these Thrace-Dacian forms.
  11. uger ‘udder’ ((023) is the predecessor of Romanian uger ‘id’ with cognates in Sanskrit, Greek, Germanic and Lithuanian language, besides Latin uber, all from PIE * ēudhr- * ūdhr- ‘udder’ (cf. DELR , uger).
  12. unghio, unghiu ‘angles, sides’ (127) is the predecessor of Romanian unghi ‘angle’, ungher ‘corner’. They derive from PIE *ank- *ang- ‘to bend’, with the nominal forms *anko-, *onko- *ankulo- (IEW, 46) with cognates in various Indo-European languages, including Latin (cf . DELR, unghi, încovoia ‘to bend’).
  13. vida ‘life’ (092), bio ‘life, behavior, to live’  (016, 129), poltavio (po alto vio / bio) ‘to have existed / lived “(042), vio ‘force’. Poltavio is a compound verb form (or phrasal verb). These forms are the predecessors of Romanian  viu ‘alive’, viață ‘life’, a viețui ‘to live’ are cognates of Latin vita, vivus, all from PIE * gʷīwe / o- ‘to live’ * gʷīwo- ‘alive’, * gʷītā-‘life’ (EDL, 685),. There are cognates in Celtic, Baltic and Slavic languages.
  14. (mairo) viro ‘(the) great man, a consul to the Romans, mayor’ (010, 011, 025, 045, 062, 092, 094, 119, 120, 121, 124, 126), veiro ‘manfully’ (094, 114) brebiro ‘emerging victorious / like a man’ (023). Thraco-Dacian. viro was not preserved in Romanian only somehow indirectly in bărbat ‘man’ which originally meant ‘bearded (man)’ as in Latin and in several other Indo-European .languages, all from PIE * ŭir- ‘man’ (IEW, 1177). Forms in b (as in brebiro) were associated by folk etymology with *barbato which replaced all forms in vir-o, around 2000 years ago or even more. We have reasons to believe that the language of the Sinaia tablets is an archaic language. New Greek varvatos ‘man’ in a loanword from Thraco-Dacian, not from Romanian since in Greek b > v around 2000 years ago, before Romans set foot in Dacia and before any type of possible Romanization.
  15. virgerio ‘victors, valiant men’ (009) seems to be a derivative of vir-(o) suffixed by -gerio (see biro, above).
  16. voxo ‘voice’ (017) is a cognate of Latin vox ‘id’ (see DELR,  boace, boci). Today’s Romanian voce ‘voice’ is a loanword from 19th century.
  17. zaveso ‘back’ (076). The etymology remains obscure.
  18. zeibun (Zeubun ‘Thraco-Dacian name of a deity’) ‘ancestral god’ (002) is probably a compound form from zeu ‘god’ and bun ‘ancestor, grandfather’.
  19. zerfio ‘sacrifice’ (035, 052), sarfite ‘let (them) sacrifice’ (121). Outside Sinai tablets, it is attested a similar form, the Thracian zetraia ‘sacrifice’ (cf. IEW, 447).  These forms derive from PIE *g’heu- *g’heumn- ‘to pour, to make libations’ (IEW, 447) with cognates in several Indo-European languages, such as Sanskrit hotra ‘sacrifice’, hotar ‘priest’, Avestan zaotar, zaothr ‘the priest, the one who sacrifices’ and Greek χύτρος, χύτρα ‘jar (for libations)’ (cf. IEW). Regarding Thracian zetraia, Walde-Pokorny shows that it derives from a PIE * g’heutr-. Allegedly, Romanian jertfă ‘sacrifice’ < OCS *žrtva which is non-existent in Old Church Slavonic, but it was ‘rebuilt’ by Miklosich from the southern Slavic forms. It was borrowed into Russian as well. It seems to me that the southern Slavic forms are loanwords from Proto-Romanisn (cf. DELR, jertfă).
  20. zu, zoi, ‘(the) day’ (130) is the forerunner of Romanian zi (ziuă) ‘day’ (day), with cognates in many Indo-European languages, all from PIE *diues- ‘day’ (IEW, 185), related to zeu (see deu, zeu) (cf. DELR, zi, zeu).
  21. zuna ‘zone, region’ (111) to be associated with Latin zōna ‘belt, girdle, zone’ which is a loanword from Greek ζώνη ‘belt, girdle, girdle’. If the word is  properly identified, it looks that it is a loanword from Latin, since the meaning of ‘zone’ appears only in Latin, but not in Greek.