On the Centum Features of Thraco-Dacian Language

By | 2017-09-27T06:43:53+00:00 25 September 2017|

The centum/satem distinction refers to the nature of the first two dialects that appeared in Proto-Indo-European, namely the different evolution of Proto-Indo-European palatal velars *k , *g and *g'h. The western dialect was named centum and the Eastern one satem. Following this distinction, we can demonstrate that the Traco-Dacian language is a centum, not a satem language as it was believed since 19th century to the present. The Romanian lexical elements of Thraco-Dacian origin, discussed in this article have centum, not satem features which proves that this language was a centum language and even related to Latin and other Italic languages. Furthermore, we may easily distinguish the genuine Slavic lonawords into Romanian and vice-versa. Until now the Romanian linguists were completely unaware of these details.

THE LANGUAGE OF THE INSCRIPTIONS OF THE SINAIA TABLETS(I)

By | 2017-03-20T07:19:26+00:00 24 March 2016|

There have been and there is still much controversy about the origin of Romanian language and people originating either from bad faith or ignorance. Basically, it comes down to two hypotheses:  the Latin or the Dacian one, both well known to all of us. The real discovery of Sinaia tablets took place in the second half of the nineteenth century, but the details remain a mystery. In the 90s of last century when Dan Romalo published the first book on the inscriptions of the remaining 134 lead tablets out of hundreds that were discovered more than a century before. Meanwhile, a few more authors tried to decipher these inscriptions. In 2014, Eugen Nicolaescu a professional decrypter published his Vorbele din Plumb (The Words from Lead) making a much better interpretation of the data. In what follows, I make  the etymological analysis of 336 Thraco-Dacian words. From what we could see, the language is actually an archaic form of Romanian, with many links to Latin and other Italic languages (including Etruscan) or other Indo-European languages.

THE IMPORTANCE OF HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY.HISTORY IS, FIRST OF ALL, GEOGRAPHY! (Jules Michelet)                                    

By | 2017-03-20T07:20:57+00:00 24 March 2016|

Here’s a sensible reason why this science should become an educational discipline starting with just the middle school, and, as for the higher education, this discipline should be also introduced to the School of History (and l'histoire est avant tout géographie) not only the School of Geography, where it was, as Prof. Marin Giurăscu, who had worked there until half a century ago, confided, irrationally abolished, as the lack of knowledge in such domain of crucial importance has led to major errors, also in the academic environment. As for me, I joined the reasonable opinion of those two, scientific above all, figures.

More on Cucuteni-Tripolye culture and the Indo-European homeland

By | 2017-03-20T07:18:44+00:00 16 June 2015|

This paper presents Axel Kristinsson, (Reykjavik Academy, Island) new hypothesis on the Indo-European expansion from the Cucuteni Trypolie location, and its importance for the Romanian research. His background on studies of massive movement of populations from the history of Europe such as the Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, or of the Vikings migrations from the history of Europe, not to mention the populating of the Americas, may offer a better solution for solving the IE spread. Kristinsson offers two models of expansion, by colonizing, and by ‘expansion system’, models that could be applied and observed in relation to the colonization of Dacia. Even though Kristinsson considers that the comparative mythology should not be regarded as a valid source in the IE discussions, one should not ignore the few patterns that could be observed in most of the IE cultures. An interesting example is presented to sustain this argument.

Bucovina: Onomastics and History (II)

By | 2017-03-20T07:17:24+00:00 15 March 2015|

The conference was delivered in the Council Hall of the Romanian Academy on May 24th 2001
The author of the present paper describes the evolution of Bucovina from the inclusion into the Habsburg Empire of this territory - once part of Moldavia - to the day. After some hesitations, this land annexed to Austria-Hungary, which had not previously had a name of its own, received a Slavic name eventually. This name had been used by the Moldavian Chancellery only in the documents written in the Slavic language, since proving that it was not a Romanian territory was a necessity back then. The same criterion was used when choosing Cernăuți as the capital of Bucovina; it is worth noting, however, that this is a Romanian name, since the Ukrainian one is Cernivtsi. The author also analyses the dramatic changes in the toponymy and anthroponymy of Bucovina, both during the Austrian-Hungarian occupation and especially after the northern part of this territory, included in the Cernăuți/Chernivtsi region and currently part of the Ukrainian Republic, became part of the Soviet Union.

Father Christmas – Romanian Moş Crăciun and his roots in the Indo-European mythology

By | 2015-03-16T09:04:41+00:00 23 December 2014|

This paper discusses a few aspects of the Romanian Father Christmas – Moș Crăciun character in relation to the Indo-European pantheon, and proposes a different etymology of his name. A general custom in many European households was to bring inside the house on Christmas Eve an oak log known in English as the Yule log, in Romanian “butucul crăciunului”. This sacred log which was burning till spring, may have its roots in a solar cult of the most important god of the Indo-European mythology, the god of sun and fire, of thunder and lightning, be that Zeus, Jupiter, Diuspater, Wodan, Indra, Perkunas, more so Mithra, the powerful Sun god celebrating his birthday on December 25th whose cult was spread in Eastern Europe by soldiers from the Roman legions.

Bucovina: Onomastics and History(I)

By | 2017-03-20T07:17:17+00:00 23 December 2014|

The conference was delivered in the Council Hall of the Romanian Academy on May 24th 2001
The author of the present paper describes the evolution of Bucovina from the inclusion into the Habsburg Empire of this territory - once part of Moldavia - to the day. After some hesitations, this land annexed to Austria-Hungary, which had not previously had a name of its own, received a Slavic name eventually. This name had been used by the Moldavian Chancellery only in the documents written in the Slavic language, since proving that it was not a Romanian territory was a necessity back then. The same criterion was used when choosing Cernăuți as the capital of Bucovina; it is worth noting, however, that this is a Romanian name, since the Ukrainian one is Cernivtsi. The author also analyses the dramatic changes in the toponymy and anthroponymy of Bucovina, both during the Austrian-Hungarian occupation and especially after the northern part of this territory, included in the Cernăuți/Chernivtsi region and currently part of the Ukrainian Republic, became part of the Soviet Union.

Words Defining the Notion of ‘WATER’ in Various Language Families of the World

By | 2017-03-20T07:18:22+00:00 23 December 2014|

From the information shown bellow, one may conclude that a large number of the world languages share at least 8 (eight) different terms defining the notion of ‘water’ or from the same semantic field. There are, in general, at least several hundred words common to various world languages, besides those discussed in this article. I should stress that of them are found in Romanian as well. This mean that Romanian language seems to be a very old Indo-European language, not just another Romance language. The myth of Tower of Babel is wide spread in many cultures all around the world. I would like to mention here only the one of the Kaska Indians of North America: “before the Flood, there was a single center. All people lived in one country and spoke only one language”. Therefore, the myth of the Flood, as well as the one of the Tower of Babel, refer back to some real events which took place many thousands years ago and some peoples remember them even today.

The Etymology of the words țigan (gypsy) and (r)rom (romany)

By | 2017-03-20T07:16:43+00:00 23 December 2014|

The present paper analyses the etymology of the words țigan ‘Gypsy’ and (r)rom ‘Romany’. Previous approaches trace back the term țigan to the Greek word athingánōs, meaning ‘untouchable, pagan, impure,’ and (r)rom to the homonymous Persian term with the sense ‘man, husband, master of the house.’ I argue that, despite their long-established influence, these etymologies are misleading and partially inconsistent. I postulate instead that the two words are of Sanskrit origin. On this view, țigan goes back to the term at(i)-ingā-nin (‘a person who is on the move, a traveller, a nomad’). In Indian culture, nomadism and lack of purity were understood as two complementary dimensions of intangibility, a characteristic attributed to the so-called pariahs and the lower caste sudra. Due to close commercial and cultural relations between India and Byzantine Greece under the Seleucid dynasty, at(i)-ingā-nin may have entered the Greek language under the form athinganoi, with its original negative connotations enhanced by the local Christian context. As far as the word (r)rom and its variants dom and lom are concerned, a number of phonetically similar Sanskrit terms can be identified, all of which converge towards the meaning ‘lord, master of the house, husband.’ If we also take into account historical information related to the migration of the gypsy population from India, it is plausible to ascribe the term (r)rom a Sanskrit instead of a Persian origin.

The Theory of Statement in Romanian Language

By | 2015-03-16T09:05:23+00:00 23 December 2014|

This paper is intended as an overview of the Theory of Statement in a Romance language: Romanian. In this paper we will refer to the evolution of the Theory of Statement. In this respect, we will present the views of renowned authors and analyse the defining features of statement in the Romanian language, in order to shape an overall picture of the topic approached herein. We consider it important that, in the current linguistics, the basic unit subject to analysis is the statement, because this is an illustration of how modernisation of traditional grammar is achieved by borrowing technical terms that are designed to complement the shortcomings of previous terminology. Statement will be analysed both as a communicative unit and as a syntactic unit, concluding that statement may be accepted as syntactic unit in the communicative plane, although, since it is neither defined nor delimited in the relational plane, it cannot be considered a relational unit. As a syntactic unit, statement implies division, it has the status of an analysable whole, and we can talk about the internal organisation of a statement if it is created by articulating at least two components.

Introduction to The Etymological Dictionary of The Romanian Language

By | 2014-12-23T19:15:58+00:00 27 August 2014|

The Introduction investigates the origin of Romanian language from a new perspective. Due to the fact that most (86%) of the Romanian lexicon cannot be explained through Latin and it has no cognates in other Romance language, a new method of investigation was developed. From the other 14%, 2/3 belong to a common Indo-European heritage. Thus the Introduction (and the dictionary) shows that most of the Romanian lexicon originates from Thraco-Dacian, a language widely spoken in Balkan region and central and eastern Europe in ancient times. It compares the Romanian lexicon with other Indo-European languages and presents into details the phonological evolution of sounds from Proto-Indo-European to Romanian. The method works very well and solves the etymology of thousands of Romanian words left with unknown, uncertain or wrongly attributed etymology as discussed in the new Etymological Dictionary of Romanian. As a result one may say that Romanian is not a real Romance language as it was believed, but the daughter language of Thraco-Dacian with some Latin, Slavic or other lexical borrowings. The paper also reveals that Thraco-Dacian (and Illyrian) were closely related to Celtic and Italic languages and by analyzing the Romanian lexicon of Thraco-Dacian origin, it shows also that this language was a centum language, contrary to the general belief that it was a satem lanaguage. A beginnig of Romanization may have taken place, but not a Romanization proper. This hypothesis is supported by both linguistic and historical facts investigated in this paper.

Some Etymological Considerations on the Romanian mântui to redeem.

By | 2014-12-23T19:16:10+00:00 26 August 2014|

This paper discusses the etymology of the Romanian concept mântui ‘redeem’ considered a Hungarian loan. By comparing the explanation from Hungarian etymological dictionary and Hungarian religious documents employing the concept of Mântuitor the Redeemer, new options are observed particularly in the light of the more recent Indo-European language studies, giving leeway to other possible etymological solutions.

The Turkish Influence on the Romanian Language

By | 2017-03-20T07:20:29+00:00 26 August 2014|

The Turkish language (called also Ottoman or Osmanli) has had, during almost five centuries, a considerable influence on Romanian, from the end of the 14th to the middle of the 19th century, and having some local, dialectal extensions in Dobrudja until nowadays. The Turkish linguistic influence on Romanian was the result of a historical context in which the Ottoman Empire extended its domination and suzerainty on the Romanian Principalities, and exercised a longstanding influence on their social, administrative and economic life until the second half of the 19th century. The Turkish linguistic influence on Romanian was the result of a historical context in which the Ottoman Empire extended its domination and suzerainty on the Romanian Principalities, and exercised a longstanding influence on their social, administrative and economic life until the second half of the 19th century.